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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 

/inter 1996 

Battlefield update 


newsletter of the ' / . 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

Issue No. 60 

U.S. Departnnent of the Interior 

National Park Service 

Heritage Preservation Services 

March 1996 U>rvEiLiNG 

Planned for Civil War 

Discovery System 

If you haven't heard about it, you 
/ill. It moves troops across fields, 
iigs spirituals, plays Dixie and the 
Jattle Hymn of the Republic, displays 
latabase information, and visually 
onveys the stories of the Civil War 
ising 21st century computer technol- 
)gy. It is the Civil War Discovery 
Jystem. This March, the Civil War 
Trust will unveil the interactive, 
lultimedia computer program in three 
)attlefield parks — Prairie Grove 
battlefield State Park, Antietam 
National Battlefield, and Gettysburg 
National Military Park. 

mation accessible and exciting even for 
those who have had little or no exposure 
to this period of American history; 
showcase a vast amount of unique 
material of interest to Civil War enthu- 
siasts; and promote community-based 
battlefield preservation. The Discovery 
System will likely accomplish these 
goals because it is well-organized, 
creatively designed, simple to use, and 
rich in video, audio, photographic, and 
documentary materials. 

Upon entering the system, users 
may access six main selections by 
simply touching the screen. "The Big 
Picture" provides a brief, general 
introduction to the Civil War and the 
issues that caused it. "The Civil War 
World" includes information on the 

Copyright © 1995 by the Civil War Trust 

The Discovery System is designed 
to stimulate interest in and promote 
understanding of the Civil War; help 
individuals explore their own personal 
and patriotic ties to the stories and 
places of that period; keep the infor- 

military, social, political, and cultural 
character of mid- 19th century 
America. At each historic site or 
battlefield where tlie Discovery 
System is located, a customized 

Assessment On Course 

Pat Reed, Superintendent of 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National 
Military Park, reports that the Chatta- 
nooga Area Civil War Sites Assessment 
is progressing nicely (reported in Battle- 
field Update, March/April 1995). The 
project's objective is to help better protect 
important Civil War sites within the 
National Military Park and throughout 
the region. The APBB-funded assessment 
began in 1994, and has pooled the 
energies of local, regional, state, and 
federal agencies interested in the benefits 
of preserving historic areas associated 
with the battles of Chickamauga and 

A project planning team has been 
assessing site significance and developing 
management objectives and preservation 
strategies for significant sites. They have 
also been working with local and regional 
planning authorities to encourage land- 
owners to protect these sites. 

The assessment is roughly half 
completed. The project planning team 
has met with private property owners, 
local government officials, and the 
general public to determine the top fifty 
sites needing protection. The next step is 
to discuss the benefits of preservation, 
such as tax credits and tourism, and the 
mechanisms of preservation, such as 
scenic easements and greenways, with 
those groups. The team will formally 
present the assessment's findings to the 
public in September 1996. Reed hopes 
that the data from the final report will be 


Fee zo -^n<^ 

ASSESSMENT, from page 1 

flilly integrated into local planning 
authority databases, especially Geo- 
graphic Information Systems. 

Reed emphasizes the importance of 
involving the community in the plan- 
ning process. The project planning 
team is working with the Coosa Valley 
Regional Development Center, the 
Georgia Department of Natural 
Resources, the Tennessee Historical 
Commission, the Southeast Tennessee 
Development District, the Chatta- 
nooga-Hamilton County Regional 
Planning Commission, the Southeast 
Regional Office of the NPS, and the 
ABPF. Reed believes the assessment 


Published by the National Park Service 

Roger G. Kennedy 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 

Acting Chief, Heritage Preservation 


Jan E. Townsend 

Chief, American Battlefield Protection 


Tanya M. Gossett 


Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

Battlefield Update is published quarterly 

and is available free of charge. Send 
articles, news items, and correspondence 

to the Editor, Battlefield Update, Na- 
tional Park Service, American Battlefield 

Protection Program, P.O. Box 37127, 
Suite 250, Washington, DC 20013-7127; 

(202) 343-9534; FAX (202) 343-1836; 

has proceeded with little public or 
governmental opposition because of 
local participation in, and a sense of 
ownership of, the project. 

GPS Training Held at 

Fredericksburg and 


Staff from the National Park 
Service's Cultural Resources Geo- 
graphic Information Services (CRGIS) 
facility conducted a week-long Global 
Positioning Systems (GPS) training 
workshop at Fredericksburg and 
Spotsylvania National Military Park 
last October. GPS is satellite mapping 
technology that allows mappers to 
cover ground faster than traditional 
survey techniques and to map features 
with an accuracy of +/- one meter. 

CRGIS staff trained cultural and 
natural resources staff from Mid- 
Atlantic area parks, as well as GIS 
coordinators from state and local 
governments, in GPS theory and use. 
The participants learned how to plan 
and complete a GPS mapping project 
by conducting surveys defined by the 
park. The projects included mapping 
streams and wetlands for the natural 
resources managers as well as mapping 

Although earthworks at the park 
were mapped using GPS in 1 992 and 
1993, some sections were surveyed 
again for several reasons. Today's GPS 
equipment is more accurate than it was 
three years ago. Many areas, such as 
Lee's final line at Spotsylvania Court 
House, are very complex, and previous 
versions of the software were unable to 
capture the details of a double line of 
earthworks. Also, additional data 
needed by the park maintenance staff, 
such as tree cover, was collected for 
certain segments. 

All of the usable data collected by 

the class will be added to the park's GIS 
database for future analysis. This 
database was developed by CRGIS in 
order to assist the park in managing its 
resources and protecting its related lands. 
The database was delivered to 
Fredericksburg in July 1995, and is being 
used extensively by the park for a variety 
of projects. For more information about 
GPS training or the use of GPS on 
battlefields, contact Bonnie Bums at 
(202) 343-1032 or 


Corinth Mapping and 
Documentation Project 

CRGIS staff were busy again in 
November of 1995. For ten days survey 
crews revisited Corinth, Mississippi, to 
finish mapping Civil War features in the 
area, a project begun last April (reported 
in Battlefield Update, June 1995). Just 
as the Siege of Corinth crossed state lines 
in April and May of 1862, the CRGIS 
surveyors spilled into Tennessee in an 
attempt to provide comprehensive 
documentation of the area's resources. 
The surveyors have now mapped 7.5 
miles of surviving field fortifications and 
other associated features. Sixty-nine 
percent (5.2 miles) of these Civil War 
trenches are located in Alcorn County, 
Mississippi; 16 % (1.2 miles) in 
McNairy County, Tennessee, and 15 % 
(1.1 miles) within the city limits of 
Corinth. These resources are highly 
fragmented, surviving in more than fifty 
locations in the area. 

How many miles of field fortifica- 
tions were originally dug by the armies 
during the Siege of Corinth? CRGIS 
digitized a military map from 1 862, 
collected GPS positions to "geo-refer- 
ence" it, and then layered the depicted 
resources over a modem map, using the 
GIS program Arclnfo. Through this 

See CORIIVTH, pa«e 4 

DISCOVERY, from page 1 

lection will interpret that place's 
jnificance in the Civil War. Another 
lection, "On This Date," allows users 
punch in any day and month, their 
thday perhaps, and find out what 
ents occurred on that date in Civil 
ar history. Frequently, such events 
II be linked to an article in "The Civil 
ar World." When users choose 
oldier Records," they will be able to 
cess basic information about more 
an one million Federal and Confeder- 
; soldiers and sailors. Whenever 
ssible, these records will be linked to 
olographs and personal papers of the 
Idiers. In "Preserving Battlefields," 
ers will find a discussion of battlefield 
eservation issues, learn how they can 
pport preservation in their communi- 
s, and find out what others are doing 
protect battlefields across the country. 

The Civil War Trust is developing 
; Discovery System with the National 
irk Service, the History Channel, and 
her corporate and foundation spon- 
rs. The National Council for the 
)cial Studies has already endorsed the 
stem. After initially testing the 
stem at Prairie Grove, Antietam, and 
sttysburg, the Civil War Trust expects 
place the system at museums and 
her historic sites on its Civil War 
iscovery Trail. 

The Civil War Trust invites the 
iblic to submit information on grass- 
ots, state, and federal battlefield 
eservation initiatives for inclusion in 
e system's "Preserving Battlefields" 
ction. For more information about 
e Civil War Discovery System, 
mtact Julie Fix at the Civil War Trust, 
U5 Eye St, NW, Suite 401, Washing- 
n, DC 20005; (202) 326-8414; 

BGES Holds Price's 1864 
Campaign Workshop 

The Blue and Gray Education 
Society (BGES) organized and con- 
ducted a Sterling Price's 1864 Mis- 
souri Campaign workshop, which was 
held in Kansas City, Missouri, firom 
November 30-December 1, 1995. The 
Association for the Preservation of Civil 
War Sites (APCWS) sponsored the 
conference with fimding fi-om the ABPF. 
The Department of History at the 
University of Missouri-Kansas City was 
a cosponsor. 

The approximately 30 participants 
focused their attention on: (1) exchang- 
ing information on past, ongoing, and 
anticipated preservation efibrts along the 
route of Price's campaign; (2) identify- 
ing the important sites that tell the story 
of Price's campaign; (3) determining key 
players, communities, and agencies that 
could or should be involved in a Price's 
campaign heritage trail; (4) suggesting 
possible sources of fijnding and techni- 
cal assistance; and (5) formulating an 
approach and timetable for developing 
and implementing the trail. Len Riedel 
of the BGES is compiling the final 
report, which will be available through 
BGES, APCWS, and the ABPP by the 
middle of February 1995. 

Missouri Civil War 
Battlefields Studied 

ABPP Partnership Funding 

projects have recently been completed at 
three Missouri battlefields: Byram's 
Ford (Big Blue), Newtonia, and Fort 
Davidson (Pilot Knob). 

A Byram's Ford battlefield preser- 
vation plan has been developed for the 
city of Kansas City, Missouri, and the 
Monnett Battle of Westport Fund. The 
planning process, undertaken by Gray & 
Pape, Inc., included archival and 

cartographic documentation, interviews 
with local and state leaders, a public 
questionnaire, a viewshed study, ar- 
chaeological surface reconnaissance, and 
preservation goals and strategies. The 
main champion of preservation at 
Byram's Ford has been the Monnett 
Fund, in association with the Civil War 
Round Table of Kansas City, which 
culminated twelve years of land acquisi- 
tion last spring by donating 90 acres of 
battlefield land to Kansas City. In 
recognition, the Monnett Fund received 
an ABPP Battlefield Preservation 
Award. To protect the battlefield's 
fragile resources, the complete plan is 
not being released to the public; ybr 
more information, however, contact the 
Kansas City Historic Preservation 
Management Division at (816) 274- 

The Newtonia Battlefields Protec- 
tion Association has just completed a 
site assessment of the 1862 and 1864 
battlefields. This preliminary planning 
study provides a historical overview of 
the sites, archival documentation, and an 
assessment of the battlefields' condition 
and preservation priorities based on 
limited archaeological field reconnais- 
sance. The study, conducted by Garrow 
& Associates, Inc., concludes that the 
battlefields retain good historical integ- 
rity, despite being unprotected, and 
recommends the development of a full 
preservation plan. For more informa- 
tion, contact the Newtonia Battlefields 
Protection Association at (41 7) 451- 

Historian Howard Noble has 
documented the Battle of Pilot Knob for 
the Fort Davidson Battlefield Protection 
Committee and the Iron County Histori- 
cal Society. The study provides archival 
research and a historical narrative of the 
battle, which, on September 27, 1864, 
pitted Confederate Maj. Gen. Sterling 
Price against Brig. Gen. Thomas Ewing 
and the Federal garrison at Fort 
Davidson, now a state historic site. The 

See MISSOURI, pa«e 5 

CORUVTH. from page 2 

process, CRGIS determined that the 
original entrenchments extended 40.9 
miles. Of those shown on the military 
map, fewer than 18% survive today. 
Only 16% of the surviving resources 
were rated in good condition. This 
information will be stored in a database 
that local planners and preservationists 
can use to monitor the area's resources. 



The Corinth Civil War Mapping and 
Documentation Project is a public- 
private partnership, involving CRGIS, 
the Siege and Battle of Corinth Commis- 
sion, the Mississippi Department of 
Archives and History, Alcorn County, 
the City of Corinth, the Temiessee 
Division of Archeology, Shiloh National 
Military Park, and the ABPP. 

Subcommittee Hears 

Testimony on 

Revolutionary War and 

War of 1812 Bill 

U.S. Rep. Dick Zimmer (R-NJ), 
sponsor of the Revolutionary War and 
War of 1812 Historic Preservation 
Study bill (H.R. 810), told the House 
Subcommittee on National Parks, 
Forests and Lands that his legislation 
"will shield our Revolutionary War and 
other historic sites from suburban 
sprawl," and that these sites "are at 
great risk and deserve special attention." 
Testifying on December 7, 1995, before 
the subcommittee, Zimmer and other 
proponents of the bill stressed the fragile 
nature of Revolutionary War and War of 
1812 resources, many of which are in 
urban areas, and the need for quick 
Congressional action. 

Historian and archaeologist James 
Kochan testified on behalf of the Ameri- 
can Revolution Round Table and the 
Pluckemin Archaeological Project, 
which represent a national constituency 
of concerned citizens. Kochan empha- 
sized that sprawl development and 
looting either threaten or have already 
destroyed many of the "last vestiges of 
the lands, structures and features" 
associated with the Revolutionary War 
and the War of 1 8 1 2 . He noted that 
historic sites such as the Princeton 
Battlefield, the Spring Hill Redoubt 
associated with the Siege of Savannah, 
and the 1812 shipwrecks of Lake 
George and Lake Champlain, are in 
serious jeopardy. Kochan also stressed 
that "timely passage of this bill is 
critical if we are to use [the study's] 
information to develop strategies for 
safeguarding these hallowed grounds 
before they are lost." 

If passed, H.R. 810 would direct the 
Secretary of the Interior, acting through 
the National Park Service (NPS), to 
identify battlefields and other sites 

directly linked to the two wars that 
retain historic value and to recommend 
ways to preserve them. The NPS would 
have two years to report its findings to 

Rep. Zimmer introduced the bill in 
the House last February and Sen. James 
Jeffords (R-VT) introduced a compan- 
ion bill (S. 1226) in the Senate last 
September (reported in Battlefield 
Update, February 1995 and Fall 1995). 

ABPP Welcomes New 

The American Battlefleld Protec- 
tion Program is pleased to introduce 
two new staff members, Hampton 
Tucker and Tanya Gossett. 

Mr. Tucker will be coordinating the 
ABPP's fall 1996 national conference 
and will be responsible for multimedia 
projects. He holds a M.A. in Architec-- 
tural History and has extensive profes- 
sional experience with the Legacy 
Resources Management Program and 
cultural resources data collection and 

Ms. Gossett is the new editor of 
Battlefield Update and the ABPP 
publications coordinator. She has 
degrees in American History and 
Historic Preservation Planning. For th« 
past two years, she has been an editor 
with the National Register of Historic 
Places. Ms. Gossett began working for 
the National Park Service as a seasonal 
historian at Fredericksburg and 
Spotsylvania National Military Park in 

MISSOURI, from page 3 

Study also includes the text for twelve 
wayside granite markers, currently being 
erected throughout the battlefield area. 
For more information or to order a 
copy of the study, contact the Iron 
County Historical Society at (314) 546- 
5637 or Fort Davidson State Historic 
Site at (314) 546-3454. 

For more information about the 
ABPP's Partnership Funding pro- 
gram, contact us at the address on the 

Commemorative Coin 

On December 7, 1995, the Civil 
War Trust asked the Secretary of the 
Interior to approve the expenditure of 
Civil War Commemorative Coin rev- 
enues for preservation projects at six 
jattlefields: Cedar Creek, Viiginia; 
Vlalvern Hill, Virginia; Perryville, 
^tCentucky; Mill Springs, Kentucky; 
Prairie Grove, Arkansas; and Rich 
Mountain, West Virginia. The ABPP 
vill review the Civil War Trust's six 
ipplications for the Secretary. The 
Assistant Secretary for Fish, Wildlife, 
uid Parks will make the final decision to 
ipprove or deny the expenditure of the 
equested fiinds. All six battlefields are 
m the Civil War Sites Advisory 
Commission's Priority I list for preser- 
'ation. The ABPP plans to complete its 
eview of these applications before 
)ecember21, 1995. 

As of November 24, 1995, total coin 
evenues for battlefield preservation 
qualed $5,728,667. Last summer the 
Secretary approved the distribution of 
ommemorative coin revenues for three 
ndangered battlefields: Schoolhouse 
1 Udge in Harpers Ferry battlefield. West 

Virginia; Grove Farm at the edge of 
Antietam battlefield, Maryland; and 
Opequon (Third Winchester) battlefield 
in Virginia. The approved expenditures 
for preservation activities at these 
battlefields totaled $1,033,457; the Civil 
War Trust has $4,695,210 remaining. 
The total request for the six applications 
is about $1 million. The ABPP antici- 
pates receiving additional applications 
for the Secretary's approval before 
January 1 996 and early in the new year. 

Gettysburg NMP Offers 

"Adopt a Position" 


In December 1995, Gettysburg 
National Military Park announced a 
new volunteer program for groups 
wishing to help care for Civil War 
monuments, cannon, fences, stone walls, 
and other features on the battlefield. 
"The park's new 'Adopt a Position' 
program is modeled on the popular 
'Adopt a Highway' program. Civil War 
reenactment units, round tables, and 
other interested organizations can adopt 
regimental positions on the battlefield 
and help the park with maintenance and 
preservation projects," explained 
Superintendent John A. Latschar. 
"Every area on the field is up for 
adoption, including the Eternal Light 
Peace memorial, and individual 
fencelines and woodlots." 

"We would like to take advantage of 
the commitment and dedication of both 
the Civil War community and others to 
help us tackle historic preservation 
projects which cannot be funded 
through our shrinking park budget," 
added Latschar. 

Projects will be coordinated by park 
maintenance staff. Some tools and 
equipment may be provided. Interested 
organizations should contact Volunteer 
Coordinator Laurie Coughlan at (71 7) 

ABPP Developing 
Database for Battlefields 

The ABPP is developing a database 
to track all preservation activity on 
battlefields, primarily focusing on the 
fifty Priority I sites identified by the 
Civil War Sites Advisory Commission. 
This information will be made available 
to local and national preservation 
organizations, and will provide them 
with a general knowledge about preser- 
vation activity at a particular site or 
within a state. The project is the result 
of a combined efifort of the ABPP and 
National Park Service's Cultural 
Resources GIS facility. 

The database will include basic 
infcnnaiion on preservation activity at 
battlefield sites. It will cover a range of 
topics, including historical significance 
of the site, current condition of the 
battlefield, a history of preservation 
activity at the site, total acreage covered 
by the battlefield, total acreage of areas 
that are protected, and individual 
contacts who are closely related to 
ongoing preservation and land acquisi- 
tion efforts. Maps indicating site 
locations, study areas, and protected 
lands will also be included. 

Future issues of Battlefield Update 
will feature summaries gleaned fi^om the 
database about preservation activity at 
various battlefield sites. Information 
gathered on the fifty Priority I Civil War 
sites will also be available on the ABPP 
World Wide Web site at http:// 

If you have information that 
should be included in the battlefield 
database, please contact Chris 
Shaheen at (202) 343-4259, or send 
any information to the American 
Battlefield Protection Program at 
the address on the backpage. 

ABPP Announces 1996 

Partnership Funding 


The American Battlefield Protec- 
tion Program is gearing up for its 1 996 
Partnership Funding Apphcation pro- 
cess. AppUcations will be mailed in 
December 1 995 and must be completed 
and postmarked, or hand-delivered, to 
the National Park Service by February 
28, 1996. Funding is limited to projects 
affecting battlefields on the Civil War 
Sites Advisory Commission's list of 
Priority I sites (see below). 

As always, the ABPP is looking for 
activities that directly result in the long- 
term preservation of historic battlefield 
land. We encourage new applicants to 
participate, and urge current and previ- 
9us applicants to continue to submit 
proposals for innovative projects. 

Eligible projects include, but are not 
limited to: 

• developing protection strategies, 
mechanisms, and systems to protect 
historic battlefield land; 

• identifying and evaluating significant 
historic battlefield lands and resources; 

• enhancing technical or management 
abilities of battlefield protection organi- 
zations or local governments; 

• providing public education about, or 
interpretation of, a battlefield; 

• building community support and 
consensus about the protection of a 
significant historic battlefield; and 

• assessing the condition of a battlefield 
or its related features and undertaking 
work to stabilize or preserve those 

Additionally, funds can be used to 
procure professional services, equip- 
ment, and supplies necessary to conduct 
the proposed project. 

The ABPP will not consider for 

• acquisition of properties or land in fee 
or in interest, or payment of rent on 
properties or land; 

• fund raising; 

• lobbying; 

• battle reenactments; 

• new construction or reconstruction of 
historic resources; 

• permanent staff positions; 

• object or material culture curation or 

other ongoing activities; or 
• capital construction or improvement 
projects (site excavation, trail or road 
construction, parking lots, visitor 
centers, scene restoration, etc.) 

N.B. Due to recent developments in 
the interpretation of laws regarding the 
National Park Service's use of coopera- 
tive agreements, we strongly suggest 
that projects focus on a specific battle- 
field or battles or be managed in part- 
nership with a State Historic Preserva- 
tion Ofifice. 

We will announce the dollar amount 
available for the 1996 partnership- 
funded projects when Congress ap- 
proves the ABPP's 1996 appropriations. 

Anyone interested in receiving an 
application should contact Ginger Carter 
at (202) 343-1210 or write to the ABPP 
at the address on the back page. Please 
include your name, address, phone 
number, and indicate whether or not you 
are currently on our mailing list. Cur- 
rent and past ABPP cooperators, the 
fifty Pnority I battlefield sites, and state 
and local governments will automati- 
cally be sent applications. 

The Fifty Priority I Civil War Battlefields 

Allatoona, GA 

Chickasaw Bayou, MS 

Kennesaw Mountain, GA 

Raymond, MS 

Antietam, MD 

Cold Harbor, VA 

Malvern Hill, VA 

Rich Mountain, WV 

Bentonville, NC 

Corinth, MS 

Mill Springs, KY 

Ringgold Gap, GA 

Boydton Plank Road, VA 

First Kemstown, VA 

Mine Run, VA 

Secessionville, SC 

Brandy Station, VA 

Fisher's Hill, VA 

Mobile Bay, AL 

Second Manassas, VA 

Brices Cross Roads, MS 

Fort Davidson, MO 

Monocacy, MD 

Second Deep Bottom, VA 

Bristoe Station, VA 

Fort Donelson, TN 

Newtonia, MO 

South Mountain, MD 

Cedar Creek, VA 

Gaines' Mill, VA 

North Anna, VA 

Spotsylvania Court House, VA 

Chaffin's Farm/ New 

Gettysburg, PA 

Perryviile, KY 

Spring Hill, TN 

Market Heights, VA 

Glendale, VA 

Petersburg, VA 

Vicksburg, MS 

Chancellorsville, VA 

Glorieta Pass, NM 

Port Gibson, MS 

White Oak Road, VA 

Chattanooga, TN 

Harpers Ferry, WV 

Port Hudson, LA 

Wilderness, VA 

Chickamauga, GA 

Honey Springs, OK 

Prairie Grove, AR 

Literature and 

Two reports sponsored by the 
ABPP have recently been completed. 

The first is the Port Republic 
Museum Interpretive Plan, prepared 
for the Society of Port RepubUc Preser- 
vationists, Inc., Port RepubHc, Virginia. 
In 1992, the Society bought the historic 
Kemper House and began renovating the 
Duilding for use as a local museum. The 
Tiuseum's interpretive plan focuses on 
liree major interpretive themes: human 
settlement at the confluence of the South 
Branch of the Shenandoah River from 
jrehistoric times through the 19th 
:entury; Port Republic's role in 
fackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign 
)f 1862; and the town's change of 
character since a disastrous flood in 
1877. The plan also maps out goals for 
il^he museum's permanent collection, 
vayside exhibits, walking tour develop- 
nent, and preservation activities. For 
nure information, contact: Society of 
^ort Republic Preservationists, Inc., 
^.0. Box 82, Port RepublicVA 24471; 
703) 434-7373; FAX (703) 434-4339. 

The second report is the Preserva- 
ion and Interpretation Plan for 
iherman 's "March to the Sea" Savan- 
\ah Campaign, prepared for the 
Association for the Preservation of Civil 
Var Sites (APCWS) by White Star 
"onsulting. This plan describes the 
ignificant military operations that 
•ccurred between Atlanta and Savan- 
] lah, Georgia, in November and Decem- 
er, 1864; presents a methodology for 
reserving and interpreting the March to 
t le Sea corridor that includes specific 
I ^commendations for development of a 
I ingle interpretive route; summarizes 
1 xal land use laws and regulations; and 
1 resents, by tax parcel, the historic 
! ignificance and preservation status of 
{ reas recommended for interpretation. 

preservation, and/or acquisition. The 
report includes color maps of troop 
movements and six helpfiil indexes. For 
more information, contact: APCWS, 
305 Charlotte Street, Fredericksburg, 
VA 22401; (703) 371-1860; FAX (703) 

Corridor Management Plans are 
fi-ee fact sheets distributed by Scenic 
America. The sheets focus on helping 
local governments and advocacy groups 
plan for the management of scenic 
byways. These approaches to corridor 
planning can also apply to historic 
areas. For more information, contact: 
Scenic America, 21 Dupont Circle, NW, 
Washington, DC 20036; (202) 833- 

The National Trust for Historic 
Preservation publishes a series of 
information booklets ($3.00-$6.00) on a 
variety of historic preservation and 
planning subjects. Battlefield preserva- 
tion advocates will find many titles 
usefiil, including "Rural Conservation," 
"Preservation of Historic Burial 
Grounds," "Risk Management and 
Liability Insurance for Nonprofit 
Preservation Organizations," "Strategic 
Planning for Nonprofit Organizations," 
and "Using Professional Consultants." 
For more information, contact: Infor- 
mation Series, National Trust for 
Historic Preservation, 1 785 Massachu- 
setts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 
20036, (202) 673-4286/4189. 

The National Trust for Historic 
Preservation recently announced the 
publication o^ Place Notes ($10.00), a 
discussion of the pros and cons of fifty 
local planning techniques. While Place 
Notes does not specifically focus on 
battlefield preservation, it does illustrate 
how small towns and rural communities 

can retain their unique character — which 
may include battlefields — and balance 
new development. For more informa- 
tion, contact: National Trust for 
Historic Preservation, Northeast 
Regional Office, 7 Faneuil Hall 
Marketplace, Boston, MA 02109, (617) 

A limited number of copies of the 
Study on Civil War Sites in the 
Shenandoah Valley are still available 
and can be obtained at no cost by 
contacting the ABPP at (202) 343-9505, 
by FAX (202) 343-1836, or by writing 
to the ABPP at the address on the back 

Randall Arendt of the Natural 
Lands Trust has written a paper entitled 
"Planning Techniques to Protect Battle- 
Related Resources." In particular, the 
paper addresses planning issues in rural 
and suburbanizing communities. Free 
copies are available fi^om the ABPP. 


The Rappahannock Valley Civil 
War Roundtable will sponsor the 4th 
Annual Virginia Civil War Preserva- 
tion Conference in Fredericksburg on 
March 30-31, 1996. This year's theme 
is "Preserving Sites in the 
Rappahannock Valley." The weekend 
conference includes tours of the 
Fredericksburg, Kelly's Ford, and 
Brandy Station battlefields and a 
banquet with guest speaker John 
Hennessy. Conference profits will go to 
the APCWS for purchase of Brandy 
Station battlefield land. Registration: 
$75.00 all inclusive. Please contact: 
Mac Wyckoff Program Chairman, 
RVCWRT, P.O. Box 7632, Fredericks- 
burg, VA, 22404; (540) 786-2470. 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
PO. Box 37127, Suite 250 
Washington, DC 20013-7127 




PERMIT No. G-83 













This publication is finance by the United States Department of the Intenor. National Park Service. Under Title VI of the Civil Rights 
Act of 1964, as amended; Section 504 of the Rehabiliution Act of 1973, as amended, and the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as 
amended, the Uruted States Department of the Intenor prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national ongin, handicap, or 
age in its programs If you believe you have been discnminated against in any program, activity, or facility, or if you desire further 
infomnation please write: Office of Equal Opportunity, National Park Service, PO Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127. 

Spring 1996 


Issue No. 6 

newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

!<^i. l94 U.S. Department of the Interior 

National Park Service 

Heritage Preservation Services 

ABPP Plans National 

The American Battlefleld 
Protection Program will host the 
Third National Battlefield Protection 
Conference from September 18-21, 
1996, in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The 
conference will bring together 
landowners, battlefield managers and 
staff, community planners, non-profit 
organizations, government officials, 
battlefleld enthusiasts, historians, and 
conservationists from across the 
country. The planned format includes 
two days of sessions, one day of 
workshops, and one day of battlefield 
tours led by acclaimed Civil War 
historian Edwin C. Bearss. 

Past conferences have focused on 
the initial steps of battlefield preserva- 
tion. The theme of this conference will 
move beyond "getting started" 
techniques and focus on the imple- 
mentation of land use planning and 
highlight successful partnerships that 
have preserved threatened Civil War 
battlefields. The proposed agenda 
includes sessions on land use planning 
and legal tools, strengthening and 
networking fhends groups, heritage 
tourism and economic development, 
and public education and battlefield 
interpretation. The Chickamauga and 
Chattanooga National Military Park 
and the Tennessee Historical 
Commission will co-sponsor the event 
with the ABPP. The Civil War Trust, 
the Civil War Soldiers System, and the 
NPS Cultural Resources GIS team 
have offered to host workshops. 

The dates of the conference 
coincide with the anniversary of the 
Battle of Chickamauga, which was 
fought from September 18-20, 1863. 
To commemorate the battle, the 
National Military Park is planning 
numerous events, including walking 
tours of the battlefield and living 
history demonstrations. 

Conference attendees will also 
have the opportunity to attend 
workshops planned for the conclusion 
of the Chattanooga Area Civil War 
Sites Assessment, an ABPP-flinded 
regional initiative coordinated by the 
National Military Park to help protect 
endangered Civil War sites in the area. 
The assessment team has developed 
objectives for the protection and 
management of threatened sites and is 
working with local and regional 
planning agencies to encourage 
landowners to protect significant 
resources outside the park. These 
workshops will be geared to local 
community and business leaders, both 
in Southeast Tennessee and Northwest 
Georgia, but will have applications far 
beyond the Chattanooga area. 

The Third National Battlefield 
Protection Conference will be held at 
the Radisson Read House Hotel and 
Suites in historic downtown 
Chattanooga. Built in the mid- 19th 
century, the hotel served as a field 
hospital for both the Union and 
Confederate armies during the Civil 
War and is now listed in the National 
Register of Historic Places. The 
deadline for reservations is August 18, 

See COIVFERENCE, pa«e 2 

Secretary Approves Coin 
Funding for Projects 

As of March 5, 1996, the Secretary 
of the Interior had approved eleven 
requests for Civil War Commemorative 
Coin revenues from battlefield 
preservation groups (see the table on 
page 3). To date, revenues from coin 
sales total roughly $6 million. The 
Civil War Trust, the organization 
responsible for processing requests for 
coin monies, received 3 1 applications 
outlining 45 projects. The funding 
requested is $10,032,455. 

The Civil War Trust has reviewed 
and forwarded fifteen applications to 
the ABPP for comment. The ABPP 
reviewed eleven of these and sent them 
to the Secretary, who granted fiinding to 
each. The ABPP is currently reviewing 
the other four requests. Of the 
remaining sixteen applications received 
by the Civil War Trust, the Secretary 
anticipates another seven to ten 
applications will emerge from the 
review process to receive fiinding. 

The sum of the eleven approved 
expenditures is $2,637,165, leaving 
available $3,362,835 of the original $6 
million. The four applications currently 
under review by the ABPP and the 
Secretary request a total of $861,155. 
Estimated funds that have not been 
expended or are not sought in 
applications under review equal 

Most recently the Secretary 
approved fiinds for land purchases at 

See SECRETARY, page 2 

COIVFERENCE. from page 1 

'96. A limited number of rooms are 
ailable to federal employees at a 
ecial government rate. 

Please address questions and 
mments about the conference to 
impton Tucker of the ABPPat the 
fdress on the backpage; (202) 343- 
'80; hampton tucker@nps. gov. 

SECRETARY, from page 1 

i battlefields of Spring Hill, 
innessee; Corinth, Mississippi; Mill 
)rings, Kentucky; and Resaca, 
jorgia. Projects currently being 
viewed include property acquisition 
Perryville, Kentucky, and Brices 
ross Roads, Mississippi. 


Hiblished by the National Park Service 

Roger G. Kennedy 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 

Acting Chief, Heritage Preservation 


Jan E. Townsend 

Chief, American Battlefield Protection 


Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

'attlefieid Update is published quarterly 

and is available free of charge. Send 

nicies, news items, and correspondence 

to the Editor, Battlefield Update, 

National Park Service, American 

battlefield Protection Program, P.O. Box 

37127, Suite 250, Washington, DC 
0013-7127; (202) 343-3449; FAX (202) 


1996 ABPP Funding 
Application Process Closes 

This year's ABPP funding application 
processes ended March 15. As of that 
date, the ABPP had received thirty-three 
applications for battlefield preservation 
projects needing monetary assistance. The 
projects represent preservation efiforts at 
twenty-nine Priority I battlefields, three 
other Civil War sites, and one 
Revolutionary War battlefield. Project 
types include survey (5), education and 
interpretation (18), planning (6), 
documentation and research (1), site 
stabilization (2), and miscellaneous (1). 
Funding requests for 1996 total $512,690. 

The ABPP will review the applica- 
tions within six weeks and notify 
applicants of funding decisions at the end 
of the review process. 

NPS Honors Edwin C. 
-^ Bearss 

At a retirement banquet on February 
9, 1996, the National Park Service 
recognized Edwin Cole Bearss, former 
Chief Historian of the National Park 
Service and renowned Civil War historian 
and battlefield guide, for his lifetime 
dedication to the Service and the country. 
Roasting and toasting the former Marine 
and star of PBS Civil War documentaries 
were NPS Director Roger Kennedy, 
Deputy Director John Reynolds, 
Associate Director Kate Stevenson, 
National Capital Regional Field Director 
Robert Stanton, current Chief Historian 
D wight Pitcaithley, and numerous other 
NPS regional representatives, park 
superintendents, and former co-workers 
of Bearss. U.S. Marine Corps Chief 
Historian Ben Frank and Herbert Hart of 
the Council on America's Military Past 
also made presentations. Richard 
Rambur, formerly the Superintendent of 
Antietam National Battlefield and now 

Superintendent of Lowell National 
Historical Park in Massachusetts, was 
master of ceremonies. 

Jokes abounded about baseball caps, 
swagger sticks, tuxedos, fishing, and 
match-making. But after the laughs, each 
speaker praised Bearss' remarkable 
contributions to the NPS, the field of 
history, and public education, and many 
offered gifls of appreciation and friend- 
ship. Bearss graciously accepted the 
kudos and the gifls, but frequently turned 
the tables on his colleagues by recounting 
anecdotes about them in front of the more 
than 120 guests. 

Kate Stevenson officially presented 
Bearss with the first ever title of National 
Park Service Historian Emeritus. 
Director Kennedy, Frances Kennedy, and 
Jim Kochan announced that the NPS, the 
Conservation Fund, and the National 
Park Foundation have established a 
fellowship in Bearss' name to "support 
graduate education in American history 
and American studies." According to the 
National Park Foundation, "the fellow- 
ship will be open to all NPS career 
employees with at least five years of 
service, who are engaged in historical 
research and education." 

In his closing remarks, Bearss 
reiterated the importance of the National 
Park Service's mission to interpret the 
rich cultural and natural heritage of the 
United States. He stressed that the 
agency must help the American people 
better understand and appreciate the 
national treasures held for them in trust. 
Beyond the resources, however, Bearss 
emphasized that his most enduring 
memories are of the dedicated people he 
has met during his tenure at the NPS. 

The National Park Foundation is 
accepting contributions for the Edwin C. 
Bearss Fellowship endowment. For 
more information, please write to Jim 
Maddy, President, National Park 
Foundation, II 01 1 7th Street, NW, Suite 
1102, Washington, DC 20036-4704. 

Approved Civil War Coin Applications as of March 5, 1996 


Battlefleld: Site name 

State: Site location 

Applicant: Cooperating association 

Priority I: A list of 50 battlefields needing urgent protection according to the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission 

Acres: Number of acres to be purchased 

Amount: Total coin revenues expended 

Leverage in Place: Monies contributed to the project fi"om other funding sources 

Last $: Final monies contributed to secure the acquisition 




Priority I 



Leverage in Place 


Schoolhouse Ridge 








Grove Farm 








3rd Winchester 








Malvern HilJ 








Cedar Creek 


Cedar Creek Battlefield 






Rich Mountain 


Rich Mountain 
Battlefield Association 






Prairie Grove 


Arkansas Department of 
Parks & Tourism 






Spring Hill 










Friends of the Siege & 
Battle of Corinth 






Mill Springs 


Mill Springs Battlefield 








Georgia Civil War 











CWT = Civil War Trust 

APCWS = \ssociation for the Preservation of Civil War Sites 

*As of March 5, 1996, $50,000 was approved for the down payment and $150,000 approved for the last payment. A 

letter of credit is being negotiated so that the full $200,000 may be used for the down payment. 

Battlefield Preservation Profile 

Port Gibson, Mississippi 

In March 1863, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant b^an to move his army 
south against Vicksburg, Mississippi, the most strategically significant 
Confederate city on the Mississippi River. He marched his men through the 
Louisiana parishes opposite and south of the city and ferried across the river to 
Bruinsburg, Mississippi. 14 miles west of Port Gibson. On May 1, Confederate 
troops under Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen met the advancing Union army near Port 
Gibson, but the Federals outflanked and overwhehned Bowen's forces. The 
Union victory enabled Grant to establish a foothold in Mississippi. The 
Vicksburg campaign and siege that followed, ending with the surrender of the 
city and its defending army on July 4, were critical steps in ending the war and 
ensured Grant's reputation as one of the great generals in U.S. military history. 

Today 1 1.3 acres and a historic road that crosses this battlefield are 
protected; the remainder of the site is predominantly forested or in agricultural 
use and appears much as it did at the time of the Civil War. New development 
on the battlefield is concentrated along State Route 61 within the town of Port 
Gibson. The Mississippi Department of Archives and History (MDAH) has 
designated historic resources associated with the battle as state landmarks, 
including the Shaifer House, the overlook at Bayou Pierre, the historic 
Bruinsburg Road, and the site of Magnolia Church. All other battlefield land is 
held in private ownership. 

Preservation activity began at this site in 1972 when the State of Mississippi 
nominated 2,080 acres of the battlefield to the National Register of Historic 
Places. Since 1983 the Grand Gulf Military Monument Commission, an 
independent state agency, has maintained several of the battlefield's historic 
resources, including lands surrounding the Shaifer House that have recently been 
nominated as a National Historic Landmark. Representatives firom Port Gibson 
participated in the ABPP-sponsored Vicksburg Campaign Preservation 
Conference in 1995. The purpose of the conference was to evaluate the 
condition of sites associated with the 1863 campaign and to develop an action 
plan for their preservation. The ABPP has also provided the MDAH with fimds 
to implement several preservation initiatives at the site; a preservation plan for 
the battlefield and its resources, an engineering study of historic roads that will 
identify erosion problems [Editor's note: this project has been completed, see 
page 5, Literature and Information], and the training of local road crews to 
properly maintain fragile Civil War resources. The National Park Service is 
also providing funds for The Countryside Institute to hold a workshop that will 
provide recommendations concerning battlefield preservation, community 
development, and growth management for the town of Port Gibson. 

To learn more about this site contact Michael Beard, Mississippi 
Department of Archives and History, P.O. Box 571, Jackson, MS 39205-0571, 
(60 J) 359-6940 or Tom Presson, Grand Gulf Military Monument Commission, 
Route 2, Box 389, Port Gibson, MS 39150, (601) 437-5911. 

This is the first in a series of battlefield profiles to appear in Battlefield Update, 

Gettysburg Partners 
Nominated for Awards 

The Friends of the National Parks at 
Gettysburg has been nominated for two 
1996 National Park Partnership 
Leadership Awards. The National Park 
Foundation established the award 
program in 1992 to recognize 
outstanding partnership contributions of 
external organizations that advance the 
mission of the National Park Service. 
Established in 1 989, the Friends help 
preserve the historic landscapes of 
Gettysburg National Military Park and 
Eisenhower National Historic Site. 

NPS Northeast Field Director Marie 
Rust nominated the Friends for a 
Resource Stewardship and Preservation 
award and an Education and 
Interpretation award. The former 
nomination recognizes the Friends' role 
in removing modem utility lines from the 
Gettysburg battlefield in the area of 
Pickett's Charge and placing the lines 
underground. To date, more than one 
mile of lines has been buried. The 
Friends raised $272,000 to help pay for 
the project and assisted in negotiations 
with the utility companies. 

The Education and Interpretation 
nomination highlights fund raising 
efforts that have enhanced park visitors' 
experiences. The Friends raised $75,000 
to help produce new visitor orientation 
programs at Gettysburg NMP and 
Eisenhower NHS, reproduce historic 
photos for research purposes, repair and 
replace historic tablets, plaques, and 
monuments on the battlefield, and restore 
the Copse of Trees (a stand of trees 
thought to be the objective of Pickett's 
Charge) at The Angle. 

Eight other park partners from the 
northeast were also nominated. Winners 
will be announced during National Park 
Week, April 22-28, 1996. 

Literature and 

The Natural Resources and 
Conservation Service, in cooperation 
\ith the Mississippi Department of 
\rchives and History, the ABPP, and 
)ther partners, recently completed an 
jrosion control study of Old Shaifer 
iload, a historic dirt road associated 
vith the Battle of Port Gibson. The 
igency's report, "A Plan for the 
'reservation of Old Shaifer Road," 
leals exclusively with engineering 
ssues. The report identifies eroding 
litch banks along the road, sets 
)riorities for their repair, and illustrates 
;tabilization methods. It addresses 
)roblems such as culvert extensions and 
eroding drain outlets, and discusses 
vhen natural stabilizers—plantings of 
grasses, trees, shrubs, vines, and 
egumes~or engineered solutions—dams, 
:ulverts, and emergency spillways— 
;hould be used to control damaged 
ireas. This study is one component of a 
naster preservation plan for the Port 
jibson battlefield (see page 4, 
Battlefield Preservation Profile). For 
copies, contact Michael Beard at the 
Mississippi Department of Archives and 
History, P.O. Box 571, Jackson, MS 
39205-057], (601) 359-6940. 

A limited number of the Study on 
'2ivil War Sites in the Shenandoah 
Galley are still available fi-ee of charge. 
^o obtain a copy, contact the ABPP at 
'202)343-4259, by FAX (202) 343- 
'836, or by writing to the address on 
he backpage. 


Scenic Byways '96: Scenic 
Byways for the 21st Century will be 
held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Tysons 
Comer, Virginia, April 21-24. This 
national conference will bring together 
representatives fi-om federal, state, and 
local government agencies and the 
private sector with interests in tourism, 
historic and scenic preservation, 
recreation, and economic development. 
For conference registration inform- 
ation, contact the American Recreation 
Coalition at (202) 662-7420. 

The Institute for Historical Research 
of the Universidad Autonoma de 
Tamaulipas is organizing an academic 
symposium to mark the 150th 
anniversary of the beginning of the 
Mexican- American War in 1846. The 
symposium is based upon ideas gen- 
erated at a recent seminar coordinated 
by Dr. Josefina Vazquez of El Colegio 
de Mexico, one of the objectives being 
to encourage discussion of the impact of 
the war on the different parts of the 
Mexican nation and the United States. 
The organizers encourage American 
scholars to attend and to present their 
research and perspectives. 

The symposium will be held in 
Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, May 
8-10, 1996. Co-sponsors include the 
Comite Mexicano de Ciencias 
Historicas, El Colegio de Mexico, and 
the U.S. National Park Service. 

For further information, please 
contact Octavio Herrera, Instituto de 
Jnvestigaciones Historicas- UA T, 
Cuidad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico; 
011-52-131-2-61-25; FAX 01 1-52-1 31- 
2-36-78; or Tom Carroll, Palo Alto 
National Historic Site, 1623 Central 
Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78522; 
(210) 541-2785; FAX (210) 541-6356. 

The Mill Springs Battlefield 
Association (MSB A) announces the 
replanting of the Zollie Tree this 
Memorial Day, May 27, 1996. Named 
for Confederate Brig. Gen. Felix 
ZollicofFer who died beneath the tree 
during the Battle of Mill Springs, 
Kentucky, the Zollie Tree was a beloved 
local landmark felled by a thunderstorm 
last Autumn. Since 1900, a local family 
has carried on the Memorial Day 
tradition of decorating the tree with a 
wreath. This year, the MSBA will 
sponsor the replanting of one of sixteen 
seedlings harvested before the tree's 

The event will also celebrate the 
acquisition of an additional 30 acres of 
core battlefield land, purchased 
primarily with ISTEA ftinds. MSBA is 
also receiving $155,000 in 
Commemorative Coin revenues toward 
the acquisition, part of which is match 
for the ISTEA fiinds. This latest 
acquisition will bring the total protected 
battlefield land to 67 acres. 

For event details, contact Ron 
Nicholas, MSBA Administrator, P.O. 
Box 814, Somerset, KY 42502, (606) 

The Civil War Roundtable of the 
District of Columbia announces its 1996 
Spring tour of the Antietam battlefield, 
led by Edwin C. Bearss, June 1, 1996, 
fi-om 7:30 am to 5:30 p.m. The bus 
departs Columbia Island Marina, 
Virginia, promptly at 7:30 a.m. Fee: 
$27, does not include lunch. For more 
information contact Col. Ben 
Kirkconnell at (202) 546-3893. 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
RO. Box 37127, Suite 250 
Washington, DC 20013-7127 






PERMIT No. G-83 


APR 9 1996 



ReguJations of the US Dcpaitment of the Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted 
Programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, age. or disability Any person who believes he or she has been discriminated 
against in any program operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to: Director. Equal Opportunity Program, U S 
Department of the Interior. National Park Service. PO Box 37127. Washington, DC 20013-7127 

Summer 1996 


newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

Issue No. 62 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

National Park Service 

Heritage Preservation Services 

ABPP Awards Partnership 

The American Battlefield Protection 
Program is pleased to announce its 1996 
Partnership Funding award-winners. 
Eighty applicants requested a total of 
approximately $2 million, more than 
double the amount available in 
partnership funds, A National Park 
Service committee reviewed the 
applications and awarded nearly 
$700,000 in partnership funding for 
thirty-two projects (see below). While 
most projects concern Priority I Civil 
War battlefields (the fifty battlefields 
most needing preservation according to 
the Civil War Sites Advisory 
Commission), several of this year's 
winners focus on Revolutionary War, 
Indian War, and Civil War (other than 
Priority I) sites. 


irkansas Civil War Heritage Trail 
'nterpretation / Arkansas Historic Preservation 


Mlatoona Battlefield Comprehensive 
^reservation Plan /Eiovjah Valley Historical 
Jociety, Inc. 

4cLemore Cove Battlefield Site Assessment 
leport / McLemore Cove Preservation Society 

lesaca Battlefield Interpretive Strategy Report / 
jeorgia Civil War Commission 

■ ''"ggold Gap Battlefield Survey / Catoosa 
bounty Historical Society, Inc. 


Mill Springs Battlefield Interpretation / Mill 
Springs Battlefield Association 


Tour Brochure and Information Repository for 
South Mountain Battlefield / Central Maryland 
Heritage League, Inc. 


Brices Cross Roads Battlefield Conceptual 
Interpretive Site Plan and Signage / Brices 
Crossroads National Battlefield Commission 

Preservation Action Plan for Raymond 
Battlefield / Mississippi Department of 
Archives and History 

Siege and Battle of Corinth Battlefield 
Stabilization Assessment / City of Corinth 


Newtonia Battlefield Archaeological Survey / 
Newtonia Battlefields Protection Association 


Archaeological Collections Assessment of Bear 
Paw Battlefield /liez Perce National Historic 


Mapping of the Glorieta Battle and Santa Fe 
Trail / Pecos National Historic Park 


Bentonville Battlefield Comprehensive 
Historical Resources Preservation Plan / 
Bentonville Battleground Historical Association 


Brandywine Battlefield National Historic 
Landmark Protection Implementation Project / 
Delaware County Planning Department 

Gettysburg Exhibit Design and Economic 
Impact Study / Main Street Gettysburg 


JUL 2 2 1996 

See AWARDS, page 2 

Battlefields and the 
World Wide Web 

The World Wide Web is perhaps the 
most profound technological tool for 
disseminating information since 
Gutenberg's movable type. Battlefield 
enthusiasts, historians, and preserva- 
tionists have jumped at the opportunity to 
post information on the Web, a network of 
computer servers that allows users to 
quickly access Internet information. Web 
"browsers" such as Netscape and Mosaic 
display that information in an aesthetically 
pleasing way. The Web has been 
available for public consumption for only 
a few years, but already hundreds of 
cybersites pertaining to American wars 
(especially the Civil War), military 
history, battlefields and related sites, and 
research sources exist. 

To help both novice and veteran Web 
surfers, the ABPP has compiled an 
annotated list of Web sites that provide 
important information about the above 
subjects. The annotations are based on 
the editor's opinion of each site's content, 
organization, ease of use, and design. 

This list should not be construed as 
the ABPP's or the National Park 
Service's endorsement of any public 
institution, private company, or 
individual, nor does the ABPP vouch for 
the accuracy of information in any site 
listed below. 

The following Web sites were culled 
from Universal Resource Locators 
(URLs), or Web "addresses," compiled by 
Brian Keith McCutchen at Shiloh 
National Battlefield. The ABPP reviewed 

See WEB, page 4 

New Commemorative 
"oiN Projects Approved 

As of June 6, 1 996, the Secretary 
the Intenor had approved seventeen 
}uests for revenue from the sale of 
vil War Commemorative Coins for 
; acquisition of historic battlefield 
ids. To date, coin sales have 
[lerated roughly $6 million. The 
vil War Trust, the organization 
;ponsible for processing requests for 
in monies, received forty-five project 
jposals requesting $10,032,455. 

The Civil War Trust has reviewed 
i forwarded eighteen applications to 
; ABPP for comment. The ABPP 
;ommended seventeen to the 
cretary, who approved funding for 


ublished by the National Park Service 

Roger G. Kennedy 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 

Acting Chief, Heritage Preservation 


Jan E. Townsend 

^-hief, American Battlefield Protection 


Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

ittlefield Update is published quarterly 
and is available free of charge. Send 
tides, news items, and correspondence 
to the Editor, Battlefield Update, 
National Park Service, American 
attlefield Protection Program, P.O. Box 
37127, Suite 250, Washington, DC 
)013-7127; (202) 343-3449; FAX (202) 

each; one other is currently being 
reviewed. Most recently, the Secretary 
approved the use of coin revenues for 
land purchases at the battlefields of 
Perryville, Kentucky; Brices Cross 
Roads, Mississippi; Glorieta Pass, New 
Mexico; and South Mountain, 
Maryland. (For a list of previously 
funded projects, see Battlefield Update, 
Spring 1996.) 

The sum of the seventeen approved 
expenditures is slightly more than 
$3,500,000, leaving available nearly 
$2,500,000 in coin revenues. Of the 
remaining twenty-seven applications 
received by the Civil War Trust, the 
Secretary anticipates approving five to 
seven requests. 

Museum and Trail Tell 
Story of Port Republic 

Shenandoah Valley Civil War buffs 
can now visit two new interpretive sites 
associated with the Battle of Port 
Republic: the Frank Kemper House 
Museum and an interpretive trail at the 
Coalmg, the battle's most hotly contested 
hill. The conflict at Port Republic 
marked the end of Stonewall Jackson's 
1862 Valley Campaign. 

The Frank Kemper House Museum's 
exhibits focus on the death of Confed- 
erate cavalry commander Turner Ashby, 
the battle, and the history of the town of 
Port Republic, Virginia. The Society of 
Port Republic Preservationists, Inc., 
operates the museum, which is open 

The Association for the Preservation 
of Civil War Sites (APCWS) dedicated 
an interpretive trail during the recent 
anniversary of the battle on June 8 and 9. 
Visitors to the steep but short trail 
leading up the Coaling will fmd an 
informational brochure and three 
interpretive signs. 

The ABPP provided funding for the 
museum's interpretive plan and APCWS's 
trail signs. 

AWARDS, from page 1 


Spring Hill Battlefield Interpretive Plan / Maury 
County Convention and Visitors Bureau 

Stones River Transportation Mitigation 
Alternative Study / Rutherford County 


Battlefield Preservation and Implementation 
Plan for Hanover County / Hanover County 
Board of Supervisors 

Community Outreach at Petersburg National 
Battlefield / Partners in Parks 

A Civil War Guide to the City of Petersburg / 
City of Petersburg 

North Anna Battlefield Interpretation / Blue and 
Gray Education Society 

Resources Inventory of the Rappahannock River 
Valley / City of Fredericksburg 

Shenandoah Valley Battlefield Heritage 
Organization / Lord Fairfax Planning District 

The Wilderness: Building Community Support 
and Consensus / Civil War Trust 

Spotsylvania Court House Architectural 
Guidelines / Spotsylvania Coxmty 


Rich Mountain Battlefield Education for 
Preservation Project / Rich Mountain 
Battlefield Foundation, Inc. 


Continuing Development of the Civil War 
Discovery System / Civil War Trust 

Driving-tour Brochures for Second Manassas 
Campaign, Peninsula Campaign, and 
Gettysburg Campaign / Association for the 
Preservation of Civil War Sites 

Interpretation and Planning for Hatcher 's Run, 
Harris Farm, and Spring Hill (APCWS Parcel) 
Battlefields / Association for the Preservation of 
Civil War Sites 

McDowell Battlefield/Staunton-to-Parkersburg 
Pike Project / Valley Conservation Council 

PARTNERS Student/Teacher Video on 
Preservation / Shepherd College Foundation 

The Art of Battlefield Preservation 

Many Civil War enthusiasts are familiar with artists who depict historical 
scenes of epic battles, famous commanders, and camp life in a romantic light. 
James Lancel McElhinney takes a different approach to his work, capturing 
contemporary landscapes of historic battlefields and sites that reflect the worsening 
condition of today's Civil War legacy. McElhinney 's artwork comes complete with 
strip malls, multi-lane highways, jumbo jets, telephone wires, and parking lots. His 
is a realistic view of the American landscape that juxtaposes history and the late- 
twentieth century. 

In the April 1996 issue of American Arts Quarterly, interviewer and noted 
author James Howard Kunstler asked McElhinney to explain his artistic interest in 
modem views of historic battlegrounds. "If I was going to represent the American 
landscape it occurred to me to begin with what it represents. Civil War battlefields 
in their present condition provide both subject and metaphor. A lot is revealed 

"Battlefield of Goldsboro Bridge-Foster's Raid" / mixed media. 70 X 100 inches. 1996 

about how Americans celebrate landscape by observing how we preserve, alter or 
destroy hallowed ground." From a preservation perspective, McElhinney's work is 
both a tribute to the living landscape and a lesson in cultural values. 

McElhinney prefers, whenever possible, to paint his subjects on location in one 
sitting. He also researches battle histories and studies historic military maps "to 
gain first-hand experience of how terrain and movement might have been 
experienced by Civil War soldiers." McElhinney's subjects include a portion of the 
battlefield at Malvern Hill, Virginia; Fort Mifflin in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the 
site of action at Kinston Bridge, North Carolina; and the well-known strip 
development surrounding the memorial to Colonel George Gowen and the 48th 
Pennsylvania Infantry in Petersburg, Virginia. 

James Lancel McElhinney is currently the Visiting Artist in Painting at East 
Carolina University in North Carolina. For more information about upcoming 
exhibitions, write to the artist at East Carolina University, School of Art, 1208 
Jenkins, Greenville, NC 27858. 

(/Sail tefie la J^reiervallon. 

Strategies for Preservatio] 

and Partnerships 

September 18-21, 1996 

The Radissson Read House Hot( 

Chattanooga, Tennessee 

4 6 educational sessions about 

battlefield preservation issues 

♦ 5 workshops 

♦ 2 battlefield tours 

♦ information fair 

♦ historic downtown Chattanooga 

♦ low conference registration 
fee of $60.00 

Don't Miss It! 

For registration information, contact 

Hampton Tucker at (202) 343-3580 

or hampton_tucker<^ 

and watch for conference updates 

on the World Wide Web at 
www. cr. html. 

...jeonJorea ou /n^ //a/ionae/-{uw .-ivn/u 

Conference partners include the American Battlefield 

Protection Program, Chickamauga and Chattanooga 

National Military Park, the Georgia Civil War Commissii 

the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, the Natio 

Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, and i 

Tennessee Historical Comnussion. 

WEB, from pa^e 1 

General Information 

each site with the Netscape 2.0 browser in June 1996. 
Each entry includes the name of the Web site, the 
organization (if any) that maintains the site, the URL, and a 
summary of the site's contents. 

1755: The French and Indian War Homepage (Syracuse 


http ://web . 

The most substantial Web page of French and Indian War 

information available as of June 1996. 

Battlefield Sites and Preservation 

American Battlefield Protection Program (NPS) 

The online home of the Federal government's leading 

battlefield preservation program. Includes the Civil War Sites 

Advisory Commission Report and 384 battle summaries. 

Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites 
http ://fly . . html 
News and membership information fi^om the well-iaiown 
battlefield preservation organization. 

National Parks and Conservation Association 

Information about the non-profit organization dedicated to 

protecting and enhancing our National Parks. 

National Trust for Historic Preservation 

http ://home . worldweb .net/trust/ 

Extensive online services fi"om the nation's leading non-profit 

historic preservation organization. 

National Register of Historic Places (NPS) 

http : //www . cr . nps . gov/nr/nrhome .html 

Learn how to nominate a historic property to the National 

Register, what benefits come with registration, and what 

properties are already listed in the National Register. 

New Jersey: Crossroads of the Revolution 

A history of New Jersey's role in the American Revolution, a 

list of related historic sites in the state, and more. 

State Historic Preservation Offices (NPS) 

Listings for state. District of Columbia, and territorial historic 

preservation offices. 

U.S. National Park Service Civil War Parks (NPS) 
Search here for all NPS sites that pertain to the Civil War. 

American Civil War 
This site links to national groups such as the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy and includes a limited battlefield 
"travelogue" organized by state. 

American Civil War Homepage (University of Tennessee, 


http ://funnel web . utcc . utk . edu/~hoemann/c warhp .html 

A well-organized, easy-to-use general index of Civil War Sites 

on the Web. 

The American Civil War, 1861-1865 

A general-interest index of Civil War Web sites. Includes 

National Park battlefield maps, reenactment/living history 

information, and regimental histories. 

American Civil War Links 

An alphabetical listing of Civil War Web sites. 

American Revolutionary War Web Site 
http : //www . CCS . neu . edu/home/bcortez/revwar/RevWeb .html 
An extensive listing of Revolutionary War reenacting units as 
well as a general index of links. 

Civil War Resources (Dakota State University) 

An outstanding guide to Civil War Web resources. Includes 

links to general histories, primary sources, battlefield sites, 

and publications. 

Civil War Resources on the Internet: Abolitionism to 

Reconstruction (Rutgers University) 

A clearinghouse of Web information that pertains to the Civil 

War, its causes, and its repercussions. 

Confederate American Page (RON A Corp.) 
http : //members . gnn . com/rona/home . htm 
Information about things Confederate, including the 
Confederate army and navy, uniforms, and trivia. 

The Florida Star 

A bulletin board of Civil War newsgroups and Web resources. 

Index of Usenet Civil War Discussion Groups (Imperial 
College, London, U.K.) 
Site includes annotated book lists and in-depth answers to 
many frequently asked questions about the Civil War. 

Jughead Gopher Search Index: Civil War 

gopher:// war 

Lists Civil War gopher sites at universities across the country. 

Michael D. Meals' Revolutionary War Links 

http : //q . continuum . net/~hi stnact/re vwar/revwar . html 

An excellent, well-organized, and well-maintained 

Revolutionary War Web site. It emphasizes reenacting, but 

also includes newsgroups, historic documents, and a long list 

of historic sites associated with the American Revolution. 

National Civil War Association 

Provides information about living history/reenacting units. 

U.S. Civil War Center (Louisiana State University) 

The Center promotes interdisiplinary study of the Civil War. 

Its well-maintained Web page describes the Center's projects 

provides and a general index to historic sites. 

Research Sources 

American Civil War Resources (Virginia Tech) 
Describes and excerpts manuscripts from Virginia Tech's 
archival collection. 

Civil War Diaries (Augustana College) 
Currently posted is the diary of an Illinois soldier and a 
companion lesson plan for teachers. 

Civil War Diary of James Laughlin Orr (University of Texas) 
http ://uts . cc . utexas . edu/~churchh/ci vwdiar . html 
Short passages from a Union officer's diary concerning 
Sherman's March to the Sea. 

I Civil War Resources (Virginia Military Institute) 
http : //www . vmi . edu/~archtml/c wsource . html 

Full text examples of Civil War era holdings found in the 
VMI Archives. 

Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System (NPS) 

Describes the database of basic pension information for all 

Civil War soldiers and sailors and how the data will be used 

(e.g., the African-American Civil War Memorial project). 

Confederate Pension Records (Texas State Electronic 


http://link.tsl. html 

Search more than 54,000 pension records in the Texas State 

Archives. Results provide name, pension number, and county. 

Correspondence of Governor Morton (Indiana State Archives) 
http ://www . state . in us/acin/icpr/archi ves/morton . html 
An index of more than 12,000 telegraph messages of Indiana's 
governor and his staff during the Civil War. 

Letters from an Iowa Soldier in the Civil War (University of 

Califorma, Santa Cruz) 

Partial posting of letters from Private Newton Robert Scott of 

the 36th Lifantry, iowa Volunteers (1862-1865). 

Selected Civil War Photographs (Prints and Photographs 

Division, Library of Congress) 

http : //r s 6 . loc . gov/c wphome . html 

A remarkable visual resource containing 1,118 historic 


Special Collections (Library of Congress) 
http ://lcweb . loc gov/spcoll/spclhome . html 
Descriptions of the Library of Congress' historic photo 
collection, law collection, and Jedediah Hotchkiss Collection. 


Battle of Shiloh/Pittsburg Landing 

http : //www . itek . net/~gpg 

Posts primary sources, especially firsthand written accounts 

and historic photographs, regarding the two battles. 

Buffalo Soldiers on the Western Frontier (The International 

Museum of the Horse) 

http : //www . horsewor Id . com/imh/buf/buf 1 . html 

An online "exhibit" about the famous African American 


WEB continues, page 7 

Battlefield Preservation Profile 

Mobile Bay: Fort Morgan and Fort Gaines, Alabama 

In August 1 864, Federal naval and ground forces advanced toward Mobile, 
Alabama, with the intent of closing the city's strategic port on Mobile Bay. On 
the morning of August 5, 1864, Union commander Admiral David G. Farragut 
ordered four ironclads and fourteen wooden ships to run between the cross fire of 
Fort Morgan and Fort Gaines, which guarded the entrance into Mobile Bay. The 
lead ship, xhsU.S.S. Tecumseh, struck a torpedo and sank; the other ships 
suffered little damage. The Federal ships ihm engaged the ironclad CS.S. 
Tennessee and three gunboats inside the harbor, sinking one and compelling the 
Others to either surrender or flee. By securing the harbor, Farragut effectively 
closed the port. Federal forces did not breach the city's own defeases, however, 
until the besieged Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely surrendered in April 1 865* 

Preservation activity began when Alabama desigjiated Fort Morgan a state 
historic site in 1946. In 1955 the state opened Fort Gaines to the public as a 
historic site after using it as a camp for the State Guard. In the 1960s, the state 
passed the Underwater Marine Resources Act, which helped protect the 
shipwrecks in the bay associated with the battle. That legislation is curraitly 
being revised. State officials successfully sought both the designation of Fort 
Morgan as a National Historic Landmark in 1960 and the listing of Fort Gaines 
in the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. 

More recently, the Alabama Historical Commission (AHC) developed a 
management plan for Civil War resources in and around Mdiile Bay with funds 
provided by the American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP). The 
ABPP also supported a maritime archaeological survey of the Tecumseh and 
other shipwrecks, archival and ground-penetrating radar research of buried 
remains at Fort Morgan, and a maritime preservation conference. In 1994, 
authorities in Baldwin County passed zoning legislation that prohibits 
development exceeding two stories near Fort Morgan to maintain the historic 
viewshed. Both forts have also recently undergone stabihzation; the AHC began 
a long range program of repointing and stabilizing masonry at Fort Morgan, and 
the Army Corps of Engineers stabilized the shoreline around Fort Gaines to 
protect it from further erosion. In 1995, combined federal TSTEA and state funds 
made possible the acquisition of thirty-two additional acres at Fort Morgan. 

Today, a 477-acre state parte surroimds Fort Morgan, and a 188.5-acre state 
park/Audobon bird sanctuary buffers Fort Gaines. The sites, opposite one 
another at the mouth of the bay, are both threatened by the development of 
vacation homes. In Mobile Bay itself, tides, dredging, and looting continue to 
endanger important underwater archaeological resources. 

7b learn more about this site contact Mike Henderson, Executive Director, 
Dauphin Island Park and Beach Board, P.O. Box 97, Dauphin Island, AL 
36528, (334) 861-3607 or Blanton Blankmship, Manager, Fort Morgan 
Historic Site, 51 Highway 180, West, Gulf Shores, AL 36542, (334) 540-7125. 

This is the second in a series of Civil War battlefield profiles to appear in 

Battlefield Update. 

Civil War's U.S. Colored 
Troops to be Memoiualized 

Volunteers in thirty-seven states and 
the District of Columbia have completed 
a database index of approximately 
236,000 names of U.S. Colored Troops 
who served in the Civil War. The names 
will be incorporated into the Afirican 
American Civil War Memorial 
(AACWM), which will be dedicated in 
September by President Clinton during a 
five day celebration in Washington, DC. 
The names will be engraved on plaques 
as an integral part of the memorial. The 
memorial is composed of a semi-circular 
wall of plaques surrounding bronze 
statues of two African American Civil 
War soldiers and one sailor set in a 
landscaped area that includes interpre- 
tive signs. The AACWM will be the 
first ever national monument to that 
war's black servicemen. 

The volunteer effort, coordinated by 
the Federation of Genealogical Societies, 
is part of the Civil War Soldiers and 
Sailors (CWSS) System Names Index 
project, a cooperative effort by the 
National Park Service, the National 
Archives, the Genealogical Society of 
Utah, and other organizations. When 
completed, the CWSS System will 
contain basic information on all known 
soldiers and sailors in Union and 
Confederate armies and navies. Each 
entry in the Names Index will include the 
soldier's name, allegiance, regiment, 
rank mustered in and out, and the 
microfilm reference number at the 
National Archives. The National Park 
Service estimates that nearly 3.5 million 
men were in military service during the 
Civil War. 

For information about the 
AACWM's dedication, contact Lyndia 
Grant, Project Director, (202) 939- 
8719. Direct questions about the CWSS 
System to John Peterson, NPS Project 
Manager, at (202) 343-4415 or 
John_Peterson@nps. gov. 

WEB, from page S 

Literature and Information 

Civil War Studies Homepage (Smithsonian Institute) 
http ://www. si .edu/youandsi/tsa/cw/cw. htm 
Describes courses, seminars, lectures, tours, and other 
educational opportunities offered through the Smithsonian 

Camp Chase Gazette 

An online version of "the largest and oldest publication 

devoted to the coverage of Civil War reenacting." 

CSA Currency Page 

http ://www .tiac . net/u sers/vep/csa 

General information about authentic Confederate currency. 

General George A. Custer Home Page 1 htm 

Focuses on Custer's role at the Battle of Little Big Horn. 

Gettysburg Discussion Group 1 030/gettys. html 

Scholarly, well-organized, and well-maintained discussion 


Lee's Retreat Homepage (Virginia Tech) 
Traces the Army of Northern Virginia's 1865 retreat from 
Petersburg to Appomattox Courthouse and provides 
information about an innovative, self-guided driving tour of 
the historic route. 

Tecumseh History Page (Tippecanoe Systems, Inc.) 

Discusses the Shawnee Chief and the Battle of Tippecanoe. 

U.S. Grant Network 

Links to articles, images, and historic sites associated with the 

man, the general, and the President. 

Valley of the Shadow (University of Virginia) 
This fascinating historical project brings the story of the Civil 
War alive through primary sources from two communities: 
Staunton, Virginia, and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. 

Wisconsin Veterans Museum (State of Wisconsin) 
Lists information available about Wisconsin's Civil War 

In February, The Jaeger Company published its report 
on the Atlanta Campaign Policy Conference, which was 
held in September 1 995 . For copies, contact Jaeger at 
(770) 534-0507. 

Also, The Price's 1864 Missouri Raid Preservation 
Conference Report, summarizing issues from the late 
November/early December 1995 conference, is now 
available from The Blue and Gray Education Society. 
Contact Len Rieldel at (804) 797-4535 for more 

American military history lesson plans are available 
from Teaching With Historic Places, an award-winning 
program of the National Register of Historic Places. The 
lesson plans use primary sources, maps and charts, photos, 
and an array of historical documents to bring history alive 
for students in grades 5-12. 

Current military history lesson plans include: 
Attu: North American Battleground of World War II 
Andersonville: Prisoner of War Camp 
First Battle of Manassas: An End to Innocence 
Remembering Pearl Harbor : The U.S.S. Arizona Memorial 
Guilford Courthouse: A Pivotal Battle in the War for 

Fort Hancock: A Bastion of America's Eastern Seaboard 
Fort Pickens and the Outbreak of the Civil War 
The Battle of Stones River: The Soldiers' Story 
The Battle of Bunker Hill: Now We Are at War 
Choices and Commitments: The Soldiers at Gettysburg 
Chatham Plantation: Witness to the Civil War 
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Collisions of Cultures. 

For ordering information, contact Jackdaw 
Publications, P.O. Box 503, Amawalk, NY 10501, (800) 
789-0022 or visit the Teaching With Historic Places Web 
site at 


Join Fort Ticonderoga for the 19th Annual Memorial 
Military Tattoo on July 6th and 7di, 1996 at 7:30 pm. The 
event commemorates the battle of July 8, 1758, which 
involved heavy losses of Scottish troops in a British attack 
on the then French-held fort. Performing are the 78th 
Eraser Highlanders Pipe Band, the Akwasasne Mohawk 
Nation Singers and Dancers, and the Fort Ticonderoga 
Corps of Fife and Drums. 

Tickets are $20.00 (adults)/$ 12.00 (children on July 
7th) and may be reserved by calling (518) 585-2821. 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
PO. Box 37127, Suite 250 
Washington, DC 20013-7127 





PERMIT Ho. 0-83 

Regulations of the us E)epartment ofthe Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted 
Programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, or disability Any person who believes he or she has been discriminated 
against in any program operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to Director, Equal Opportimity Program, US 
Department ofthe Intenor, National Parte Service, PO. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127 

Fall 1996 


newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

U.S. Department of the Interior ♦ National Park Service ♦ Heritage Preservation Services 

Issue No. 63 

1997 Partnership Funding Process Gears Up 

The American Battlefield Protection Program is pleased to announce that its 1997 
Partnership Funding Applications will be available m late October 1996. The ABPP 
is involved in more than 90 active projects with its cooperative organizations, and 
has assisted in the success of more than 50 others. Our former and current part- 
ners include units of local and state governments, state historic preservation offices, 
non-profit organizations, colleges, universities, and battlefield friends groups. 

Partnership funding is available primanly for projects affecting Civil War 
battlefields on the ABPP's Priority I list (see page 3). However, innovative projects 
that help protect non-Priority I Civil War sites and non-Civil War sites may also be 
eligible. In the past, funding for individual projects has typically ranged between 
$10,000 and $30,000. 

The ABPP plans to fund projects that will result in the long-term preservation 
of historic battlefield land. Eligible types of projects include, but are not limited to: 

♦ Developing protection strategies, mechanisms, and systems to protect 

histonc battlefield land 

♦ Identifying battlefields and evaluating their condition and historical 


♦ Enhancing the technical or management abilities of battlefield protection 

organizations or local governments 

♦ Providing public education about, or interpretation of, a battlefield 

♦ Building community support and consensus about the protection of a 

significant battlefield 

♦ Assessing the condition of a battlefield or its related features and undertaking 

work to stabilize or preserve those features 

♦ Temporary, project-defined staff positions. 

Procuring professional services, equipment and/or supplies necessary to conduct the 
project is also allowed. 

Non-eligible types of projects include: 

♦ Acquisition of properties or land in fee or interest 

♦ Payment of rent on properties or land 

♦ Fund raising 

♦ Lobbying 

♦ Battle reenactments 

♦ New construction or reconstruction of historical resources 

♦ Permanent staff positions 

♦ Object or material culture curation or other ongoing activities 

♦ Capital construction or improvement projects (site excavation, trail or road 

Partners Recognized at 
National Conference 

The American Battlefield Protection 
Program proudly presented four new 
Battlefield Preservation Awards at the 
recent Third National Conference on 
Battlefield Preservation in Chattanooga, 
Tennessee. The National Park Service 
award recognizes outstanding efforts by 
public and private organizations to pre- 
serve the nation's historic battlefields. 

The Siege and Battle of Corinth 
Commission, Mississippi. The Com- 
mission has garnered local, state, and 
national support for Corinth's Civil War 
resources, exhibiting considerable political 
savvy and attracting diverse state and 
Federal funding. The Commission has 
received grants from the Mississippi 
Department of Transportation (ISTEA), 
the Appalachian Regional Commission, 
The Civil War Trust, the State of Missis- 
sippi, and the APBB to support historical 
research and documentation, community 
outreach and planning, archaeological 
survey, land acquisition, and the develop- 
ment of a 26-mile recreational trail with 
interpretive markers. Rosemary Williams, 
Chairperson of the Commission, accepted 
the award. 

Fort Davidson State Historic Site, 
Missouri. Fort Davidson, working with 
the Iron County Historical Society, has 
used ABPP funds to conduct research on 
the Battle of Pilot Knob, erect a series of 
historical markers, and begin developing a 
battlefield preservation plan. These 
activities are spurring both community and 
national efforts to acquire battlefield land 

See 1997, page 3 


See AWARDS, page 5 

HQM 2 11996 

New General Management 
Plan for Petersburg 
National Battlefield 

Petersburg National Battlefield is 
beginning work on a new General 
Management Plan, Superintendent 
Michael O. Hill announced in May. 
The plan will replace a 1 965 Master 
Plan and guide the management and 
operation of the park for the next ten 
to fifteen years. The planning process 
will last approximately eighteen months 
and will rely on extensive public input. 
"Local citizen involvement is extremely 
important," Hill emphasized. Public 
meetings will be held to identify issues 
and concerns and to develop and 


Published by the National Park Service 

Roger G. Kennedy 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 

Acting Chief, Heritage Preservation 


JanE. Townsend 

Chief, American Battlefield Protection 


Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

Battlefield Update is published quarterly 

and is available free of charge. Send 

articles, news items, and correspondence 

to the Editor, Battlefield Update, 

National Park Service, American 

Battlefield Protection Program, P.O. Box 

37127, Suite 250, Washington, DC 20013- 

7 1 27; (202) 343-3449; FAX (202) 343- 1 836; 

tanyagossett ( 

discuss alternatives. Newsletters will be 
produced to keep interested parties 
informed about plan development. "This 
must be a community effort," stated Hill. 
"All of the communities and groups who 
are affected by how we do our job need 
to participate in this process." 

"This planning process will be 
different from other National Park 
Service planning efforts in several ways," 
Hill said. One of the ways is use of the 
Internet. "Through the Internet we can 
find out what people all over the country 
think about what we should be doing. 
Petersburg National Battlefield is a 
national treasure. We work for all the 
peopleof the United States. We hope 
this will be a way to reach them." The 
battlefield has a "home page" on the 
Internet with a variety of information 
about the park and its history. The 
Internet address for the home page is 
The Internet address for the planning 
process is 

Petersburg National Battlefield was 
established by Congress in 1926 to 
"commemorate the campaign, siege and 
defense of Petersburg, Virginia, in 1864 
and 1 865 and to preserve for historical 
purposes the breastworks, earthworks, 
walls, or other defenses or shelters used 
by the armies...." The House of Repre- 
sentatives also stated that "...Petersburg 
was the final field where the fratricidal 
struggle [the Civil War] was fought to a 
finish. There, if anywhere, should be a 
permanent memorial to a restored peace 
between the States." 

The Petersburg Campaign lasted 
nine-and-a-half months and raged over 
2,100 square miles of southern Virginia. 
There were 109 separate armed fights 
ranging in size from major battles to 
simple "affairs." "Since the early days of 
the park," Hill observed, "the biggest 
challenge has been to figure out what's 
really important." 

See PETERSBURG, page 7 

Bentonville Battlefield 
Designated a NHL 

On June 19, 1996, Secretary of the 
Interior Bruce Babbitt awarded National 
Historic Landmark (NHL) designation 
to Bentonville Battlefield in Johnston 
County, North Carolina. The 6,500-acre 
landmark includes the site of the con- 
flict, Union and Confederate earth- 
works, remaining portions of the historic 
road system, and one building, the 
Harper House, which was used as a 
hospital for the Union XIV Army Corps. 

The Battle of Bentonville (March 
19-21, 1865) was Confederate Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston's final opportunity to 
conclusively defeat Union Gen. William 
T. Sherman's army as it marched 
through the Carolinas. The battle 
marked the last occasion of the Civil 
War on which a Confederate army 
mounted an all-out offensive to over- 
whelm a wing of a major Union army. 
Union forces withstood five Confeder- 
ate attacks on the first day of battle and 
ultimately ensured Sherman's victory. 
Johnston's defeat at Bentonville was the 
death knell of the Confederacy, for it 
fatally weakened the South's last mobile 
field army. 

Bentonville was the largest Civil 
War battle fought in North Carolina; 
nearly 90,000 combatants contested 
approximately 6,000 acres of land. No 
other engagement during the remainder 
of the war involved as many men or 
covered as much ground. 

Bentonville Battlefield's designation 
brings the number of National Historic 
Landmarks to 2,196. NHL designation 
recognizes properties that possess 
exceptional value in commemorating or 
illustrating United States history. 

For more information about 
NHLs, contact Kira Badamo at the 
National Historic Landmarks Pro- 
gram, P.O. Box 37127, Suite 310, 
Washington, DC 20013-7127 or 
(202) 343-5279. 

1997, from page 1 

construction, parking lots, visitor centers, scene restoration, etc.). 
If you have not received an application in the past and would like to be added to 
the list of organizations receiving the 1997 Partnership Funding Application, please 
contact Ginger Carter at (202) 343-1210, by e-mail at, or fill 
out and return the form on the back page of this newsletter. 

The American Ba ii lefield 

Proteciion Program's Priority I 

Civil War Sites 



Mobile Bay (Forts Morgan & Gaines) 

Honey Springs 



Prairie Grove 







Kennesaw Mountain 


Ringgold Gap 


Fort Donelson 


Spring Hill 

Mill Springs 



Boydton Plank Road 


Brandy Station 

Port Hudson 

Bristoe Station 

Cedar Creek 


Chaffin's Farm/New Market Heights 




Cold Harbor 

South Mountain 

Second Deep Bottom 

Fisher's Hill 


Gaines' Mill 

Brices Cross Roads 


Chickasaw Bayou 

First Kemstown 



Port Gibson 

Second Manassas 


Mine Run 


North Anna 



Spotsylvania Court House 

Fort Davidson 

White Oak Road 





Glorieta Pass 

Harpers Ferry 

Rich Mountain 



Arkansas Offers Grants 

FOR Battlefield 


On September 1 , Arkansas Governor 
Mike Huckabee announced that the 
Arkansas Historic Preservation Pro- 
gram (AHPP) is offering matching 
grants to help finance interpretation of 
Arkansas Civil War sites. The grants 
will be financed with partnership funding 
from the ABPP and can be used to 
create exhibit panels for Civil War sites 
that currently lack interpretation or are 
poorly interpreted. 

"The goal of this special initiative is 
to increase Civil War heritage tourism in 
Arkansas," AHPP Director Cathy 
Slater said. "The economic benefits of 
heritage tourism will provide a strong 
incentive for preservation of Civil War- 
related properties across Arkansas." 

The grants will be awarded in 
$ 1 ,000 increments and must be matched 
by a minimum of$l,000 in cash. Public 
and private organizations, as well as 
individuals, may apply for matching 
funds through the program. Each 
application will be reviewed by a panel 
of historians and preservationists before 
the AHPP's grants committee awards 
the funds in January 1997. All applica- 
tions must be postmarked no later than 
December 1 , 1 996, to be considered for 

For more information or to 
receive an application packet, write 
AHPP. Battlefield Interpretation 
Initiative, 1500 Tower Building, 323 
Center Street, Little Rock, AR 72201, 
call the agency at (501) 324-9880, or 
send e-mail to info@dah. state. 

New Planning Model Used 
AT Prairie Grove 

The ABPP is pleased to announce the 
pubhcation of the Prairie Grove 
Battlefield State Park 1996 Master 
Plan. This plan combines public input, 
site and viewshed analysis, acquisition 
and easement planning, and geographic 
information systems (GIS) technology. 

The planning technique used by the 
authors-Karen C. Hanna, Department 
of Landscape Architecture, and Dr. W. 
Fred Limp and R. Brian Culpepper, 
Center for Advanced Spatial Technolo- 
gies (CAST), all of the University of 
Arkansas—uses Geographic Information 
Systems (GIS) to overlay data about 
historic areas, present and future uses, 
modern viewsheds, and interpretive 
areas m a way that allows the public to 
understand visually which parts of the 
battlefield are most important and in 
need of preservation. This technique 
also helps battlefield m.anagers, in this 
case Arkansas State Parks, to make 
informed decisions regarding 1 ) battle- 
field protection, e.g., determining which 
historic lands cunently outside the 
boundary of the park should be targeted 
for acquisition, for consei"vation ease- 
ments, or for screening to protect the 
historic viewshed; 2) park uses, e.g., 
which areas within the park are best 
suited for historic landscape restoration, 
vehicular and pedestrian circulation 
routes, and recreational or passive uses; 
and 3) battlefield interpretation, e.g., 
how best to design dnving and walking 
tours based on viewshed analysis and 
historic significance. 

The ABPP encouraged this study 
and funded the master plan. CAST and 
the ABPP have also begun a similar 
study of the Honey Springs Battlefield in 
Oklahoma, using the same planning 

The 94-page Prairie Grove Battle- 
field State Park 1996 Master Plan 
includes a plethora of base maps, site 

and use diagrams, viewshed cross- 
sections, color composite maps, and 
eight helpful appendices (one of which 
explains the computerized design 
techniques used for the project). For 
copies of the plan, contact Karen C. 
Hanna, Department of Landscape 
Architecture, 231 Memorial Hall, 
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 
AR 72701. (501) 575-5617. 

House Passes Washita 
Battlefield Site Bill 

The House of Representatives passed 
the Washita Battlefield National Historic 
Site Act of 1996 as part of the omnibus 
1997 Federal budget legislation in late 
September. The Washita bill (HR 3099) 
was originally introduced in March by 
Representative Frank D. Lucas (R- 
Oklahoma). In July, Cheyenne peace 
chief Lawience Hart, Dr. Bob 
Blackburn of the Oklahoma Historical 
Society, and Jerry Rogers of the 
National Park Service testified in favor 
of the bill before the House Subcom- 
mittee on Parks, Forests, and Lands. 
No opposing testimony was given. 

The bill seeks to establish a 326- 
acre National Historic Site operated by 
the National Park Service to "recognize 
the importance of the Battle of the 
Washita as a nationally significant 
element of frontier military history and 
as a symbol of the struggles of the 
Southern Great Plains tribes" to maintain 
their traditional lifeways. The bill also 
provides for intrinsic involvement of the 
Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribe in the site's 
plans and interpretation. 

Another important part of the bill 
concerns acquisition of property for the 
new site. The State of Oklahoma "will 
work with local land owners to acquire 
and hold in perpetuity conservation 
easements in the vicinity of the National 
Historic Site" as deemed necessary for 
its visual and interpretive integrity. The 

intent of the easements will be to keep 
occupancy of the land in private owner- 
ship and use of the land in general 

The Battle of Washita was one of 
the largest engagements between Plains 
tribes and the United States Army on 
the Southern Great Plains. On the night 
of November 27, 1868, the 7th U.S. 
Cavalry, commanded by Lt. Col. George 
A. Custer, attacked the sleeping 
Cheyenne village of Black Kettle, a 
peace chief The cavalrymen killed or 
wounded more than 1 50 Indians, many 
of them wom.en and children. 

Today, the battlefield is a National 
Histonc Landmark, and the cultural 
landscape is essentially intact. The 
Cheyenne village site has not been 
altered substantially except by periodic 
flooding of the Washita River. If 
approved by the Senate and the 
President, the Act will permanently 
preserve this nearly pristine site. 

For additional information, 
contact Dr. Bob Blackburn, Deputy 
SHPO. Oklahoma Historical Society. 
Wiley Post Historical Building, 
Oklahoma City, OK 73105-4997. 

Nationaj. Park Trust 

Donates Funds for South 

Mountain Land 

In May 1996, the Nafional Park Trust 
(NTT), a non-profit land conservancy, 
donated $26,000 to the National Park 
Service (NPS) to preserve .92 acres of 
important battlefield land atop South 
Mountain, the site of the first major Civil 
War engagement in Maryland. 

The Central Maryland Heritage 
League, Inc., (CMHL) executed the 
transfer of title on behalf of the National 
Park Service using funds donated for 
that specific purpose by the National 
Park Trust. The land will be preserved 
in perpetuity as part of the Appalachian 
National Scenic Trail. The donation 

contributes to Civil War preservationists' 
longtime goal to preserve the "Iron 
Bngade" battlefield site. 

"We are pleased to have been able 
to step in and work with the Central 
Maryland Heritage League to secure 
this land on behalf of the National Park 
Service," said Bruce Craig, Executive 
Director of the NPT. "In this era of 
tight Federal budgets, when the NPS 
has insufficient funds to preserve and 
protect America's parklands, we were 
pleased to be able to make these funds 
available," Craig noted. "We are 
extremely grateful to the NPT for 
joining with us in preserving this impor- 
tant South Mountain battlefield prop- 
erty," added CMHL President George 
Brigham Jr. 

The .92-acre parcel is located 
across from the old South Mountain Inn, 
which ser\'ed as headquarters for 
Confederate Bng. Gen. D.H. Hill during 
the battle. The land preserved is part of 
Hill's staging area for the Confederate 
assault, the site of a Confederate 
battery, and a central piece of the 
battlefield where Union General John 
Gibbon's men won the sobriquet "The 
Iron Brigade." 

Founded in 1 983, the National Park 
Trust is a private, non-profit land 
conservancy funded through individual 
and institutional contributions and grants. 
The NPT is the only nationally based 
land trust exclusively dedicated to 
preserving and protecting America's 
endangered National Park lands. 
Through cooperative efforts with willing 
sellers, the NPT facilitates land transac- 
tions, and in some cases secures lands 
for which there are no or insufficient 
Federally appropriated moneys. 

For National Parks Trust infor- 
mation, contact Bruce Craig, 1776 
Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 
110, Washington. DC 20036, (202) 
22S-6722 xl06. For information 
about the Central Maryland Heritage 
League, contact George Brigham Jr., 
P.O. Box 721. Middletown. MD 
21769. or (301) 371-7090. 

AWARDS, from page 1 

on the two mountains surrounding the 
fort. In addition, the State of Missouri 
has agreed to manage any donated 
battlefield lands. David Roggensees, 
the Site Manager, accepted the award. 

Rich Mountain Battlefield 
Foundation, Inc., West Virginia. The 
RMBF, established m 1990, has ac- 
quired more than 400 acres of core 
battlefield land with support from the 
APCWS, The Civil War Trust's com- 
memorative coin funds, and consider- 
able private fundraising. With funding 
assistance from the ABPP, the founda- 
tion has emerged as a regional leader in 
protecting and interpreting the Civil War 
resources along the histonc Staunton- 
Parkersburg Turnpike. The award was 
accepted by Phyllis Baxter, Executive 
Director of the Foundation. 

Chattanooga Area Sites Assess- 
ment Planning Team, Tennessee 
and Georgia. Spurred by rapid urban 
growth, the Chickamauga-Chattanooga 
National Military Park initiated a multi- 
state partnership planning effort to 
document and evaluate Civil War 
battlefield land in the Chattanooga area 
outside the park boundaries. With 
funding from the ABPP, the project has 
brought together municipal, county, 
regional, and state agencies on land-use 
planning, economic development, 
tourism, and historic preservation, and 
emphasized public outreach to commu- 
nity members and landowners. Planning 
team members, now working to imple- 
ment the plan, include the Chattanooga- 
Hamilton County Planning Agency, the 
Coosa Valley Regional Development 
Center, the Southeast Tennessee 
Development District, the Georgia 
Historic Preservation Division, and the 
Southeast Field Area of the National 
Park Service's Rivers, Trails & Conser- 
vation Assistance program. Pat Reed, 
Superintendent of the Chickamauga- 
Chattanooga NMP, accepted the award 
on behalf of the planning team. 

Past recipients of the ABPP's 
Battlefield Preservation Award are the 
Kentucky Heritage Council, the Mill 
Springs (Kentucky) Battlefield Associa- 
tion, the Arkansas Historic Preservation 
Program, Arkansas State Parks, East 
Carolina University's Underwater 
Archaeology Program, the Fort Fisher 
(North Carolina) Restoration Commit- 
tee, and the Monnett Battle of Westport 
Fund, Inc. (Kansas City, Missouri). 

Museum Opens at Mount 

In late-July, the State of Vermont ded- 
icated a new museum and visitors 
center at Mount Independence, the 
fortified peninsula jutting into Lake 
ChaniDlain opposite Fort Ticonderoga. 
According to archaeologist David 
Starbuck, who conducts digs at the site, 
the archaeological record of "The 
Mount" is one of the most intact for a 
Revolutionary War site. Artifacts 
discovered in the ongoing archaeological 
investigation of Mount Independence, 
along with displays about the site's 
history, are the main attractions at the 
new museum and visitors center. 

In 1 776, the Continental Congress 
sent 1 2,000 soldiers to man the garrison 
at Mount Independence m hopes of 
dissuading a Bntish attack on the 
American northern frontier. In October 
of that year, British ships threatened 
Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, 
but the bristling forts compelled the 
British to return to Canada, where they 
remained for more than a year. Some 
2,500 American troops remained 
through the winter, and many died of 
disease and exposure. 

For more information about \ 

visiting The Mount, contact the j 

Vermont Division for Historic \ 

Preservation. 135 State Street, \ 

Drawer 33, Montpelier. VT 05609- j 

1201. (802) 828-3226. | 

Battlefield Preservation Profile 

South Mountain, Maryland 
Fox's, Turner's, and Crampton's Gaps 

In September 1 862, Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate army invaded Maryland to 
carry the Civil War into the North. Lee then separated his army into five columns 
as part of a plan to take the Federal garrison at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. Union 
Maj. Gen. George McClellan, moving his army from Washington, DC, to intercept 
Lee's forces, learned of the Confederate plan in Frederick, Maryland. Hoping to 
destroy Lee's divided army, McClellan ordered two Union army corps to force their 
way through three passes in South Mountain: Fox's, Tumer's, and Crampton's 
Gaps. Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill's division and the Confederate cavahy defended the 
passes. After a hard fight on September 14, the Federals gained the gaps, but the 
battle for South Mountain provided the Confederates with time enough to force the 
surrender of the 1 1,000 Union troops at Harpers Ferry. Lee withdrew from South 
Mountain and regrouped his army behind Antietam Creek, setting the stage for the 
Battle of Antietam on September 1 7. 

Preservation of this site began in the early-twentieth century when the National 
Park Service (NPS) and the State of Maryland established parks (part of the 
Appalachian National Scenic Trail along the mountain's crest and Gathland State 
Park in Crampton's Gap, respectively) in the area. Local preservation activity 
began in the 1 980s when Frederick County purchased agricultural easements on 
battlefield land at the base of the mountain. During this time, the Maryland Envi- 
ronmental Trust also acquired conservation easements in the area. 

In 1989, local residents established the Central Maryland Heritage League, Inc., 
(CMHL) to preserve rural landscapes and historic sites in Washington and 
Frederick counties. The CMHL has raised more than $100,000 to protect the 
South Mountain battlefield by "selling" symbolic, square-foot parcels of the site. 
Maryland's Program Open Space (PCS), a state agency that fiuids the protection 
of agricultural land, has worked with CMHL to develop a battlefield land acquisition 
plan. Since 1990, CMHL has acquired more than 62 acres, including 22 acres paid 
for in part by The Civil War Trust and 25 acres bought with Civil War commemo- 
rative coin revenue. In 1992, POS secured a total of $4.2 million, the combination 
of an ISTEA grant and a required match, to protect battlefield land at South 
Mountain. POS has helped protect more than 430 acres to date. 

Today the CMHL, the State of Maryland, and the NPS protect more than 9 1 3 
acres of the battlefield. An additional .92 acres was added in May 1 996 as a resuh 
of a $26,000 donation to the NPS by the National Park Trust. Frederick County is 
currently negotiating with several property owners to acquire additional easements 
and the Maryland Historic Trust is using funds provided by the ABPP to survey 
historic resources associated with the battlefield. 

To learn more about preservation activity at this site, contact Judy Ashley, 
Central Maryland Heritage League, Inc., P.O. Box 721, Middletown, MD 21769, 
(301) 371-7090, or Grant deHart, Program Open Space, Tawes State Office 
Building, Annapolis, MD 21401. (410) 974-3581. 

This is the third in a series of Civil War battlefield profiles to appear in 
Battteftdi Update. 

Itineraries Highlight 
Forts and Battlefields 

Military history buffs and family vaca- 
tion planners rejoice: the National Park 
Service (NPS) and American Express 
recently announced a new travel 
itinerary series called Discover Our 
Shared Heritage. The first two 
itineraries in the series are "South and 
West Texas" and "Along the Georgia- 
Florida Coast." Included in the full-color 
itineraries are National Parks, National 
Historic Landmarks, and sites listed in 
the National Register of Historic Places. 
In both itineraries, historic forts and 
battle sites make up nearly 25% of all 
tour stops. NPS Director Roger 
Kennedy noted that "visiting these sites 
can help foster an understanding and 
appreciation of our Nation's heritage 
and encourage the preservation of these 
significant places as living parts of our 

The travel itineraries are self-guided 
tours that include a brief historical 
account of each place's significance in 
American history and culture. Travelers 
can use the maps, photographs, and 
sources of additional information about 
each site to customize tours targeting 
specific geographic areas, historic 
periods, or historical themes. 

Visitors to Texas can use the "South 
and West Texas" itinerary to find their 
way to the Alamo, Fort Sam Houston, 
the Palo Alto Battlefield, the Fort 
Stockton Historic District, and Spanish 
presidios. Vacationing in the southeast? 
"Along the Georgia and Florida Coast" 
can point you to Fort King George, Fort 
Frederica, Castillo de San Marcos, and 
Fort Jefferson, among others. 

For ordering information, contact 
the National Register of Historic 
Places, National Park Service, P.O. 
Box 37127, Suite 250. Washington. 
DC 20013-7127 or (202) 343-9536, 
FAX (202) 343-1836. 

PETERSBURG, from page 2 

In 1990, Congress created the Civil 
War Sites Advisory Commission to 
determine which of the 10,500 armed 
conflicts of the Civil War were nation- 
ally important. In 1993, the Commission 
identified 384 "principal battles" in 
twenty-six states. Not surprisingly, 
Virginia led the list with 123 sites. 
Eighteen of those sites were part of the 
Petersburg Campaign. 

"The National Park Service man- 
ages seven of the Petersburg Campaign 
sites," the Superintendent noted. "There 
are other outstanding organizations like 
Pamplin Park, the Association for the 
Preservation of Civil War Sites, and the 
Conservation Fund that manage parts of 
four other battlefields on the 
Commission's list. We hope that by 
working with landowners, communities, 
and organizations we can determine 
what role the National Park Service 
should play, not only in managing the 
park, but in encouraging heritage 
preservation and heritage tourism in 
southern Virginia. We hope to develop 
a plan that benefits everyone." 

Petersburg National Battlefield 
consists often units totaling 2,700 acres 
in Hopewell, Petersburg, and Prince 
George and Dinwiddie counties. The 
best known are the City Point Unit in 
Hopewell, the Main Unit in Petersburg, 
and the Five Forks Unit in Dinwiddie 
County. The battlefield receives more 
than 400,000 visitors and brings more 
than $12 million into the tri-cities area 

For additional information about 
the Petersburg National Battlefield 
1996 General Management Plan, 
contact Superintendent Hill at 1539 
Hickory Hill Road, Petersburg, VA 
23803 or (804) 732-4210 or visit the 
vark's planning Internet site at http:// 

Literature and Information 

MacMillan Travel recently published an 
updated and expanded version of The 
Civil War Trust's Official Guide to the 
Civil War Discovery Trail, a 

Frommer's Guide. The Discovery Trail 
links more than 420 Civil War sites in 
twenty-four states. Destinations include 
battlefields, historic homes, stops on the 
underground railroad, cemeteries, 
museums, parks, and other historic 

Organized by state, the Official 
Guide provides a description of each 
site with detailed, easy to follow infor- 
mation about hours and days of opera- 
tion, admission fees, addresses and 
phone numbers, accessibility, gift shops, 
museums, visitor centers, and dining and 
camping facilities. The book features 
historical information, maps, photo- 
graphs, and an introduction by noted 
scholar and Pulitzer Prize winning 
author Dr. James M. McPherson. 

The newly updated and expanded 
272-page Official Guide is $ 1 1 .95 . All 
sales proceeds support the work of The 
Civil War Trust. To order by phone, call 
toll-free 1-888-CWTRAIL. To order by 
mail, send a check to The Civil War 
Trust, 4407 Wheeler Avenue, Alexan- 
dria, VA 22304. Add $4 for shipping 
and handling and $.50 for each addi- 
tional copy. Virginia residents add 4.5% 
sales tax. Orders will be shipped within 
forty-eight hours. 

In July, the Friends of Monmouth Battle- 
field, Inc., published the Monmouth 
Battlefield National Landmark 
Planning Guide, a plan for the histori- 
cal interpretation of, and economic 
development near, the famous Revolu- 
tionary War battlefield. The document 
focuses on acquiring land for facility 
development, designing a driving tour of 
the battlefield, and establishing the 

Museum of Women in the American 
Revolution. For more information, 
contact the Friends at P.O. Box 122, 
Tennent, NJ 07763. 

The American Battlefield Protection 
Program recently published its first full- 
color program brochure entitled "Work- 
ing Together to Preserve America's 
Historic Battlefields." The brochure 
outlines the ABPP's mission, technical 
services, and partnership funding 
process, and lists reference sources and 
national preservation partners. For free 
copies, write to: ABPP, Publications, 
P.O. Box 37127, Suite 250, Washing- 
ton DC 20013-7127. 

^ke — 'hird i lationaC Conference on 
vSalllefieia. f-^eieri'alion 

Strategies for Preservation 
and Partnerships 

September 18-21, 1996 

Radisson Read House Hotel 

Chattanooga, Tennessee 

Dke ^JSPPwouU ilL to 

tlianh Iti partners ana t/ie 

moaeratori, ipeatieri, ana 

attenaeei for an informative, 

exciting conference In 


Transcripts of all conference 
sessions will be available later this 
year. Ifyou would like to receive 
copies, please contact Tanya Gossett 
of the ABPP at the address on the 
backpage, at (202) 343-3449, or by 
e-mail at 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
P.O. Box 37127, Suite 250 
Washington, DC 20013-7127 




PERMIT No. G-83 


Regulations of the U.S. Department of the Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted 
Programs on the basis of lace, color, national origin, age, or disability. Any person who believes he or she has been 
discriminated against in any program operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to: Director, Equal 
Opportunity Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127. 

Please send a 1 997 American Battlefield Protection Program Funding Application to: 


Return this form to: National Park Service, American Battlefield Protection Program, P.O. Box 37127, Suite 250, 

Washington, DC 20013-7127. 


inter 1997 


newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

U.S. Department of the Interior ♦ National Park Service ♦ Heritage Preservation Services 

Issue No. 64 

President Signs Omnibus 
Parks Bill 

esident Clinton signed the Omnibus 
irks and Public Lands Manage- 
jnt Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-333), 
reafter cited as the Act, into law on 
)vember 12, 1996. Several of the 
:t's 1 16 sections concern battlefield 
jservation, military sites, and military 

Division I of the Act contains 
nriad legislation about national parks 
d historic preservation. The new law 
iates a public-private partnership to 
inage the Presidio in San Francisco, 
hfomia (Sections 101-106). Accord- 
; to Congress, this innovative step 
inimizes cost to the United States 
I ^asury and makes efficient use of 
vate sector resources." The Act 
i ablishes the Presidio Trust, a "wholly 
. ned government corporation," and 
: ines the roles of the National Park 
: "vice and the Presidio Trust m the 
nagement of Presidio lands, facilities, 
li programs. 

The Act creates the Washita 
i ttlefield National Historic Site in 
1 lahoma (Sec. 607). The new park 
) nmemorates the November 27, 1 868, 
1 tie where the U.S. 7th Cavalry 
1 icked Peace Chief Black Kettle's 
1 2yenne village. Black Kettle and 
< re than 1 50 Indians were killed. The 
£ aonal Historic Site testifies to "the 
r iggle of the Southern Great Plains 
il es to maintain their traditional 
f"' ways." The Act also creates a new 
1 Hated unit of the National Park 
/ tem, the Aleutian World War II 

National Historic Area in Unalaska 
(Sec. 5 1 3). This affiliated unit symbol- 
izes in part "the role of the Aleut people 
and the Aleutian islands in the defense of 
the United States in World War IL" 

The new law also establishes the 
Shenandoah Valley Battleflelds 
Historic District and Commission in 
Virginia (Sec. 606). The Commission will 
be made up of representatives from the 
public and private sectors. The Commis- 
sion will oversee development of a plan 
for protecting and interpreting the natural, 
cultural, and historic resources of the 
District, and will designate a management 
entity to administer the District. 

Congress, through the Act, directs 
the Secretary of the Interior to prepare a 
study of Revolutionary War and War 
of 1812 sites (Sec. 603). The two-year 
study will identify the sites, determine 
their relative significance, assess short- 
and long-term threats to the sites, and 
provide alternatives for their preservation 
and interpretation. 

Several other sections have a direct 
impact on Civil War sites. The Act 
authorizes construction of an interpretive 
visitor center at Corinth, Mississippi 
(Sec. 602). Shiloh National Military Park 
will administer the facility. The Act also 
increases the authorization for completion 
of the relocation of a highway around 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga 
National Military Park in Georgia/ 
Tennessee (Sec. 605). 

The new law contains several 
important programmatic provisions that 
affect battlefield preservation and 
interpretation. It formally authorizes the 


Preservation Agenda Set 
AT Conference 

More than 2 1 people attended the 
Third National Conference on 
Battlefield Preservation: Strategies 
for Preservation and Partnerships in 

Chattanooga, Tennessee, from Septem- 
ber 18-21, 1996. The National Park 
Service's American Battlefield Protec- 
tion Program (ABPP), in partnership 
with the Chickamauga and Chattanooga 
National Military Park, the Georgia Civil 
War Commission, the Georgia Depart- 
ment of Historic Resources, the National 
Conference of State Historic Preserva- 
tion Officers, and the Tennessee 
Historical Commission, hosted the 
conference in downtown Chattanooga. 

Earlier battlefield protection confer- 
ences focused on the initial steps of land 
acquisition and management and on 
grass-roots organization for battlefield 
preservation groups. This conference 
looked closely at expanding successful 
preservation partnerships and encourag- 
ing activism that preserves threatened 
historic battleflelds. The ultimate goal of 
the conference, which assembled 
battlefield managers and staff, commu- 
nity planners, non-profit organizations, 
government officials, historians, and 
conservationists from around the coun- 
try, was to help solidify the national 
battlefield preservation movement. 

The conference included five 
general sessions: I.nterpretation and 
Education; Heritage Tourism and Econ- 
omic Development; Land-Use Planning 

See OMNIBUS, page 4 

m 2 9 1997 

See CONFERENCE, page 2 

Glorieta Pass Sites 

harpshooters Ridge, the ruins of 
geon's Ranch, and four additional 
operties at the heart of the Glorieta 
ass Battlefield, site of the West's 
ost important Civil War battle, are 
)w part of Pecos National Historical 
irk near Santa Fe, New Mexico. 
he Conservation Fund, which bought 
e five properties as additions to the 
ational Historical Park, announced on 
sptember 23, 1996, that it had trans- 
rred the fifth property to the National 
ark Service (NPS). The other lands 
id been transferred to the NPS over 
le past five years. The Conservation 
and bought the properties from 


Published by the National Park Service 

Roger G. Kennedy 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 

Chief, Heritage Preservation Services 

Jan E. Townsend 

Chief, American Battlefield Protection 


Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

Battlefield Update is published quarterly 

and is available free of charge. Send 

articles, news items, and correspondence 

to the Editor, Battlefield Update, 

National Park Service, American 

Battlefield Protection Program, P.O. Box 

37127, Suite 250, Washington, DC 20013- 

7127; (202) 343-3449; FAX (202) 343-1836; 


owners willing to sell their land at a time 
when the NPS lacked funds to make the 

The Conservation Fund purchased 
the properties between 1 990 to 1 996 
using monies from its Southwest Revolv- 
ing Fund, which was established with 
grants from the Hoblitzelle and 
Summerlee Foundations of Dallas, Texas, 
a loan from the National Park Trust, and 
a grant from The Civil War Trust. The 
Southwest Revolving Fund provides 
money to acquire and hold conservation 
land until public funding is available. 
When funding becomes available, the 
land is sold to a public agency and the 
revolving fund is replenished so it can be 
used for other projects. 

On March 28, 1 862, fierce fighting 
took place in and around Pigeon's Ranch, 
a trading post on the Santa Fe Trail. 
Union forces used the ranch buildings, 
one of which still stands, during the 
fighting. From Sharpshooters Ridge, high 
above the ranch, Union riflemen fired 
down on the advancing Confederates. 
The Battle of Glorieta Pass ended with 
the Confederates in possession of 
Pigeon's Ranch and in control of the 
field, but a Union raid at the western 
entrance to Glorieta Pass destroyed the 
Confederates' baggage train. Without 
ammunition and supplies, the Confeder- 
ates abandoned their hopes of seizing the 
Colorado gold fields and began an 
arduous retreat to El Paso, Texas. 

A nonprofit organization, The 
Conservation Fund acts to protect the 
nation's land and water resources in 
partnership with other organizations, 
public agencies, foundations, corpora- 
tions, and individuals. To date. The 
Conservation Fund has helped its part- 
ners safeguard wildlife habitat, 
community greenspace, and historic sites 
totaling more than 1 million acres in 
forty-four states. For additional informa- 
tion, contact The Conservation Fund at 
1 800 North Kent Street, Suite 1 1 20, 
Arlington, VA 22209. 

CONFERENCE, from page 1 

and Legal Tools; Friends Groups and 
Networking; and Fundraising. These 
broad topics illustrate the range of 
activities performed by battlefield 
preservationists. Panelists and modera- 
tors included representatives from 
Federal, state, and local governments, 
national non-profit organizations, and 
battlefield friends groups. Speakers 
lectured on various battlefield preserva- 
tion issues and presented case studies of 
successful efforts, including fundraising 
campaigns, local and regional preserva- 
tion planning projects, hentage tourism 
marketing strategies, and building active 
and effective friends groups. 

In a final wrap-up session, confer- 
ence participants endeavoured to design 
a five-year preservation action plan for 
America's historic battlefields. They 
reviewed the collective history of the 
battlefield preservation movement and 
its successes and failures. Session 
leaders then asked each participant to 
reflect on the earlier panel discussions, 
and to consider important actions that 
need to occur to continue and improve 
upon the current state of battlefield 
preservation in the next five years. The 
term "action" was chosen to represent a 
new idea and the means to accomplish 
that idea. Participants generated one 
action for each of the five broad topics 
considered during the conference. They 
also considered at what organizational 
levels— local, state, or national— these 
actions should be implemented. 

To consolidate these actions, 
participants divided into three discussion 
groups that represented individual sites, 
federal, state, and local governments, 
and a variety of other battlefield preser- 
vation groups, including national 
non-profit organizations. Civil War round 
tables, and tourism agencies. Each 
group refined a list of the most compel- 
ling actions and presented it to the 
general session. After all of the groups 
reported, the participants ranked each 
action. Using these scores, the ABPP 

culled a list of the most important 
battlefield preservation activities that 
need to be accomplished in the next 
five years (see sidebar). 

Inherent to many of the recom- 
mended action's were three broad 
ideas. The first was that land acquisi- 
tion and protection must remain the 
priority in battlefield preservation. 
Second, a national clearinghouse is 
needed to coordinate with state and 
local governments and organizations 
on issues such as fundraising, interpre- 
tation, and legal tools available to 
battlefield preservationists. This 
organization would maintain a series of 
brochures and workbooks in the areas 
of preservation law, land management, 
fundraising, fi-iends groups, etc. The 
third concern was to develop interac- 
tive teaching agendas with school 
systems. Participants noted that by 
involving artists, writers, and historians 
in the education process, students can 
learn about America's battle sites as 
places of social and political change 
and literary and artistic inspiration, as 
well as of history. 

Transcripts of all conference 
sessions will be available later this 
year. If you would like to receive 
copies, please contact Tanya 
Gossett of the ABPP at the address 
on the back page, at (202) 343- 
3449, or by e-mail at 

Battlefield Preservation Action Agenda 

The following list contains the highest scoring actions from each of the five cat- 
egories examined during the Third National Conference on Battlefield Preservation 

Interpretation and Education 

1 . Encourage state and local school systems to use historic battlefields and othei 

accessible resources in lesson plans and curricula. 

2. Educate local and regional political and business leaders about the importance 

of preservation to the community at large. 

3. At the national level, provide workshops, brochures, and other training aids tc 

instruct preservationists at the regional level about effective educational anc 
interpretive practices. 

Heritage Tourism and Economic Development 

1 . Educate local officials about the economic benefits of tourism to the communit) 

at large. 

2. Develop creative marketing strategies for diverse types of sites in the samt 

geographic area or sites that are thematically related. Groups of sites can cui 
expenses by marketing collectively. 

3. Gather solid data on tourism and visitation statistics for non-NPS sites. Presem 

this information to local govemm.ents as a demonstration of the economic 
benefits of heritage tourism. 


1 . Promote the reauthorization of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficienc) 

Act (ISTEA), a funding source for acquisition and enhancement of historic 

2. Establish reliable and sustainable sources of funding to support staff salaries 

and programmatic costs at battlefield sites. Investigate the establishment ol 
endowments at sites. 

3. Promote creative fundraising stiategies, such as having 1% of all new local 

construction revenues dedicated to the acquisition and preservation of nearb> 
battlefield lands. 

Legal Tools and Land-Use Planning 

1. Encourage state governments to establish permanent easement programs thai 

help protect cultural and natural landscapes. 

2. Establish/designate a central agency to provide land-use planning and legal in- 

formation through publications and workshops. 

3. Actively participate in local planning and zoning processes. Build cultural re- 

source management into local land-use plans and zoning codes. 

Friends Groups and Networking i 


1 . Establish a national clearinghouse that provides friends groups with information 

about fundraising, establishing friends organizations, legal tools, etc. 

2. Mobilize grassroot support to influence local and state preservation legislation. 

3. Establish friends groups for sites associated with all wars, not just the Civil War. 

:'- ■ OMNIBUS, from page 1 

National Park Service's American 
Battlefield Protection Program to 

"assist citizens, public and private 
institutions, and governments at all 
levels m planning, interpreting, and 
protecting sites where historic battles 
were fought on American soil" (Sec. 
604). Although Congress has funded 
the ABPP since 1990, the program was 
never officially authorized. The Act 
also reauthorizes the Advisory Coun- 
cil on Historic Preservation through 
fiscal year 2000 (Sec. 509). 

The Act authorizes the National 
Park Service to dispose of historic and 
reproduction museum objects as 
appropriate, including conveying "un- 
needed museum objects and collections 
to private tax-exempt institutions and to 
specified non-Federal governmental 
entities" (Sec. 804). It transfers certain 
parcels of Federal real property "to 
assist in the effort to... establish within 
the District of Columbia a national 
memorial to Japanese American 
patriotism in Worid War 11" (Sec. 5 14). 
The Act also transferred from the 
Bureau of Land Management to the 
National Park Service lands to be 
managed as part of the Manzanar 
National Historic Site in California 
(Sec. 515). 

Division II of the Act creates nine 
new heritage areas, including the 
Tennessee Civil War Heritage Area 
(Sections 201-209), the Augusta Canal 
National Heritage Area m Georgia 
(Sections 30 1 -3 11 ). and the South 
Carolina National Heritage Corridor 
(Sections 601-608). The Tennessee 
Civil War Heritage Area targets 38 sites 
identified by the Civil War Sites Advi- 
sory Commission as significant. The 
Augusta Canal National Heritage Area 
and the South Carolina National Heri- 
tage Corridor encompass battlefields 
and other historic sites related to the 
Revolutionary War, the Indian Wars, 
and the Civil War. 

The Library of Congress' Thomas: 
Legislation Information on the 

Internet contains full-text versions 

of major legislation, including the 

Omnibus Parks and Public Lands 

Management Act of 1996. 

http://thomas.loc .gov/home/ 

Appropriations Needed 
FOR Omnibus Projects 

Although the Omnibus Parks and Public 
Lands Management Act of 1996 has 
passed, the 104th Congress did not 
appropriate funds to carry out the Act's 
projects. The 105th Congress will 
consider this as it debates the FY 1998 
Federal budget. 

For current information about the 
status of requested appropnation legisla- 
tion, visit the ABPP's Worid Wide Web 
site at 

Commemorative Coin 

During 1995-1996, the Secretary of the 
Interior, working in partnership with The 
Civil War Trust, authorized the expendi- 
ture of $3,645,744 m Civil War com- 
memorative coin revenues. The ap- 
proved expenditures are found in the 
table below. 

State and Federal agencies and 
preservation groups have raised more 
than $6.6 million to supplement the $3.6 
million from the com revenues. Together 
these funds have been or are being used 
to purchase almost 5,000 acres of 
battlefield land. The Secretary autho- 
rized The Civil War Trust (CWT) to hold 

some of the approved expenditures in 
reserve for the Perryville and Mill 
Springs battlefields m Kentucky. These 
reserved funds will be used to match 
ISTEA funds that Kentucky has set 
aside for battlefield land acquisition. 
The CWT will ask the Secretary to 
approve the expenditure of funds for 
specific parcels at these two battlefields 
as negotiations continue. 

According to the United States 
Mint, sales of Civil War commemora- 
tive coins generated $5,909,649. Based 
on this and the amount of approved 
expenditures, the ABPP estimates that 
$2.26 million in com revenues remain 
for the acquisifion of endangered 
battlefield lands. The ABPP antici- 
pates receiving five to ten additional 
applications from The Civil War Trust in 



Harpers Ferry, WV 


Antietam, MD 

$ 50,000 

Third Wmchester, VA 

$ 500,000 

Malvern Hill, VA 


Cedar Creek, VA 

$ 72,993 

Rich Mountain, WV 

$ 11,100 

Prairie Grove, AR 

$ 126,400 

Sprmg Hill, TN 

$ 200,000 

Cormth, MS 

$ 342,000 

Mill Spring, KY 

$ 155,000 

Resaca, GA 

$ 500,000 

Perryville, KY 

$ 300,000 

Brice's CiDss Roads, MS 

$ 125,000 

Glorieta Pass, NM 

$ 50,000 

South Mountain, MD 

$ 236,079 

Pilot Knob, MO 

S 75,000 

Battlefield Preservation Profile 
Allatoona Pass, Georgia 

On September 2, 1864, Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's Union army captured 
Atlanta, Georgia, a railroad hub and manufacturing center. Federal forces then 
used the Western & Atlantic Railroad as their supply line into Georgia. The Con- 
federates struck the railroad in a series of attacks, attempting to cut the supply line 
and force the Federals to abandon Atlanta and retreat to Chattanooga, Termessee. 
Maj. Gen. Samuel G. French's troops moved to take the railroad at Allatoona Pass, 
hoping to block the narrow 95-foot railroad cut through the Allatoona Mountains. 
French arrived on October 5 and demanded the surrender of the Union division 
defending the pass. After receiving a negative reply, French attacked. Although 
outnimibered, the Union outer line survived a sustained two-and-a-half hour attack 
before falling back and regrouping in an earthen star fort. French attacked repeat- 
edly, but the fort held. The Confederates began to run out of ammunition, and 
reports of approaching Union reinforcements compelled them to withdraw. This 
Union victory, along with other engagements along the Western & Atlantic Rail- 
road, helped secure Federal control of the supply lines, and, in part, encouraged 
Sherman to carry out his March to the Sea in November and December, 1864. 

Preservation activity at Allatoona Pass began when the Army Corps of Engi- 
neers (COE) constructed Allatoona Lake in 1949. While purchasing land within the 
lake's watershed, they acquired 272 acres of the battlefield. No additional preserva- 
tion occurred at the site until 1994 when the Association for the Preservation of 
Civil War Sites (APCWS) developed an acquisition plan using funds provided by 
the American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP). Concurrently, the Etowah 
Valley Historical Society and the COE, through a partnership agreement, began de- 
veloping a self-guided mterpretive trail for protected areas of the battlefield; part of 
the trail opened in the spring of 1996. Representatives from the historical society 
also participated in the 1995 Atlanta Campaign Policy Conference, a two-day work 
session to develop a battlefield preservation strategy for die Atlanta Campaign Cor- 
ridor. Tlie conference was ajoint effort of the ABPP, the APCWS, and the Georgia 
Civil War Commission. In 1996, the Etowah Valley Historical Society began to 
develop a preservation plan for the battlefield, made possible by funds from the 
ABPP. Tlie historical society is also working to establish a national Friends of Allatoona 
Pass group to promote the site's preservation. 

Today the COE protects and maintains several significant battlefield features: the 
wartime route of the Western & Atlantic Railroad tlirough Allatoona Pass, the site of 
supply warehouses along the tracks, more than half of the star fort, the Eastern 
Redoubt and other earthworks, and several acres nortli of Emerson- Allatoona Road. 
Although portions of the battlefield outside the COE's property are currently devel- 
oped as large residential lots or recreational areas, it retains much of its Civil War 

To learn more about preservation activity at this site, contact Guy Parmenter, 
Etowah Valley Historical Society, P.O. Box 457, Cartersville, GA 30120, (770) 382- 
0500, or Carl Etheridge, Park Ranger, Allatoona Lake Management Project, U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers, P.O. Box 487, Cartersville. GA 30120. (770) 382-4700. 

This is the fourth in a series of Civil War battlefield profiles to appear in 

Battlefield Update. 

Shrimpton Leaving ABPP 

Rebecca "Becky" Shrimpton is leaving 
the American Battlefield Protection 
Program (ABPP) to pursue a career as: 
a jazz vocalist. This is no surprise to ' 
Becky's ft^iends and associates who 
know that music has always been this ' 
gifted, classically-trained singer's true | 
calling. Becky has been accepted for 
graduate study at the New England ' 
Conservatory of Music in Boston, ' 
Massachusetts, and is moving north to 
begin her studies in January 1997. 

Becky has been a historic preserva- 
tion planner for ten years and joined the 
ABPP in 1993. She was instrumental ir 
creating the Partnership Funding Pro- 
gram and forging many of the ^ 
professional relationships that the ABPI 
now enjoys with its local, state, and 
Federal partners. Becky is an intrinsic I 
part of the program and will be sorely ' 

Becky with son Sam 

Literature and 

1 The National Park Service and the 
'Natural Lands Trust, Inc, have published 
^A Community Guide to Protecting 
^ Civil War Battlefield Sites and Fea- 
^ tures in the Fredericksburg Region of 
^ Virginia. Although the guide focuses 
^ on historic resources associated with 
^ Civil War activity near Fredericksburg, it 
^ addresses preservation and development 
^ issues faced by numerous other quickly- 
growing suburban communities. 
^ The Community Guide was 
^ developed to help educate local citizens 
^ and residential developers about the 
'^ unique Civil War resources in the area. 

The guide presents several development 
^ alternatives for histoncally sensitive 
^ land, and encourages private property 
f owners to become stewards of the Civil 
^ War resources that can literally be 

found in their own back yard. 
^ The American Battlefield Protection 
F Program strongly recommends this 

concise, informative, and easily under- 
standable publication to local planning 

" offices, battlefield fi^ends groups, 

'^ developers, and landowners interested in 
successfully balancing battlefield 

^ preservation with full-density develop- 

"" For information about how to 
obtain copies of X Community 

^ Guide, contact the Natural Lands 
Trust, Inc, Hindacy Farms, 1031 

^ Palmers Mill Road, Media, PA 19063, 

^ (610) 353-5587. 

The National Parks and Conser- 
vation Association (NPCA) 
recently published a brochure 
about The U.S.-Mexican War 
1 as part of its "Visiting Battle- 

r fields" series. This handsome brochure 
1 includes a history of the war, brief 
profiles of nineteen related historic sites, 
and information about what to expect 

when visiting sites m the United States 
and Mexico. Copies in English and 
Spanish are available from the NPCA, 
1776 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, 
Washington, DC 20036, (202) 233- 

The Great Sioux War of 1 876- 1 877 was 

one of America's most famous Indian 

wars, and tens of 

thousands of people 

each year continue to 

seek its legacy in the 

northcentral United 










States. To help 
visitors understand, 
locate, and experi- 
ence the twenty-two 
battlefields and 
numerous other 
historic sites associated with that war, 
historian Paul L. Hedren has written a 
Traveler's Guide to the Great Sioux 
War: The Battlefields, Forts, and 
Related Sites of America's Greatest 
Indian War (published by the Montana 
Historical Society Press, 128 pages, 96 
illustrations, 5 maps, paperback, $10.95). 

The guidebook follows the cam- 
paigns of Crook, Terry, Custer, Miles, 
and others against Crazy Horse and 
Sitting Bull. Traveler's Guide provides 
a running narrative of the campaigns 
broken by "Getting There" sidebars 
highlighting the fifty-four places- 
including battlefields, forts, staging 
areas, Indian reservations, and village 
sites— critical to the story of the Great 
Sioux War. "Getting There" entries 
provide directions to each site, a brief 
statement of the site's role in the war, an 
indicafion of whether the site is on 
public or private land, tips about other 
nearby Great Sioux War sites, and 
occasionally a note about site preserva- 
tion or lack thereof 

Well organized, clearly written, and 
replete with easy-to-read maps and 
contemporary and histonc photographs, 
the Traveler's Guide is useful for the 

curious motorist and the armchair 
explorer. To purchase a copy, contact 
the Montana Historical Society 
Museum Store at 1-800-243-9900, or 
check your local bookstore. 

Joseph E. Brent and W. Stephen 
McBride have completed a report 
entitled "Conflict, Occupation and 
Contraband: Corinth, Mississippi in 
tiie Civil War, an Archaeological and 
Historical Research Project." The 
October 1996 report details the histori- 
cal and archaeological investigafion of a 
significant contraband (runaway slave) 
camp that existed outside of Corinth 
between late- 1862 and the end of 
January 1 864. This report was funded 
by the ABPP and the Mississippi 
Department of Archives and History. 
For copies, contact Michael Beard, 
Mississippi Department of Archives 
and History, at (601) 359-6940. or 
Rosemary Williams, Siege and Battle 
of Corinth Commission, at (601) 287- 


The Council of American Revolutionary 
Sites (CARS) is hosting An Account of 
the Action From Brandywine to 
Monmouth: A Seminar on the 
Impact of the Revolutionary War on 
the Delaware Valley, March 14-16, 
1997. For registration information, 
contact Karen Rehm, Seminar Chair- 
man, at (610) 783-1044. 

The Blue & Gray Educafion Society's 
(BGES) 1997 Educational Program 
begins with Two Great Rebel Armies 

m San Antonio, Texas. The event will 
be held from January 30 - February 2. 
For registration information, contact 
the BGES Seminar Coordinator at 
416 Beck Street, Norfolk, VA 23503. 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
P.O. Box 37127, Suite 250 
Washington, DC 200 13-7127 




PERMIT No. G-83 


Regulations of the U.S. Department of the Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted 
Programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, or disability. Any person who believes he or she has been 
discrimmated against in any program operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to: Director, Equal 
Opportunity Program, U.S. Department of the Intenor, National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127. 

Spring 1997 


Issue No. 6 

newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

U.S. Departnnent of the interior ^ National Park Service 4 Heritage Preservation Services 

ABPP Announces 1997 
Funding Awardees 

iThe ABPP received nearly 80 applica- 
tions for its 1 997 cooperative agreement 
funding round, totaling a request of more 
;han $ 1 ,500,000. Submittals came from 
lon-profit organizations, state and local 
governments, private and state owned 
Darks, and National Park Service units 
Tor use on areas outside park bound- 
>aries). The ABPP opened up a limited 
imount of funding to non-Priority I Civil 
War sites, as well as to sites associated 
AA/ith other wars. As a result, organiza- 
liiions not heard from previously applied 
' x)r funding this year. 

Project awardees have been notified 
)f their funding. The projects, as listed 
)elow, have not been flnalized as this 
lewsletter goes to press. For more 
nformation on specific projects, please 
contact the person listed with the project 

Arkansas Department of Parks and 
rourism $10,000 

^rairie Grove Battlefield Plans 

rhe Arkansas Department of Parks and 

^ourism will develop a long-range 
nterpretation/exhibit plan and a general 
rchaeological activity plan for Prairie 
jrove State Park. These detailed plans 
n\\ be appended to the site's master plan 
nd will assist in battlefield development. 

itan Graves, Director, Arkansas State 
'arks (501)682-1633 

- issociation for the Preservation of 
:ivil War Sites (APCWS) $30,000 

. and Acquisition Workshop 

The APCWS will hold a two-day 
workshop on how to purchase battlefield 
property in fee and easement. Topics 
will include site identification, planning, 
working with landowners, and legal 

Jeff Driscoll, Director of Programs and 
Properties, APCWS (301)665-1400 

Bentonville Battleground Historical 
Association (BBHA) $24,000 

Bentonville Battlefield GPS Mapping 

BBHA will conduct a comprehensive 
Global Positioning System (GPS) survey 
of the 6,000-acre battlefield and develop 
a database of battlefield resources. The 
State of North Carolina will use this 
information for planning and preservation 
activities on state-owned historic prop- 
erty and, with approval, adjacent 
privately-owned property. 

Lauren Cook Burgess, Secretary, 
BBHA (910)486-1474 

Blue and Gray Education Society 
(BGES) $9,500 

Battle of Mobile Bay Preservation and 
Interpretation Conference 

BGES, in cooperation with agencies 
representing Fort Games, Fort Morgan, 
and Fort Blakeley, will conduct a working- 
group conference. It will bring together 
state and local agencies to build an 
action plan for the continued preserva- 
tion and interpretation of endangered 
sites related to the Battle of Mobile Bay 
and the surrender of Mobile. 

Leonard W. Riedel Jr., Executive 
Director, BGES (804) 797-4535 

See AWARDEES, page 4 

Revolutionary War/ 
War OF 1812 Study 

On November 12, 1996, the Revolution 
ary War and War of 1812 Historic 
Preservation Study became law (P.L. i 
104-333, Section 603). The bill was ' 
introduced by former Representative i 
Richard Zimmer (R-NJ) and Senator 
James Jeffords (R-VT). The law directs 
the Secretary of the Interior to obtain 
information on the significance of, threat 
to the integrity of, and alternatives for th 
preservation and interpretation of Revo- 
lutionary War Sites and War of 1 8 1 2 
sites. These sites provide a means for 
Americans to understand the wars as 
defining periods in American history. As 
the turn of the century approaches, rapid 
urban and suburban development 
threaten many of the remaining battle 
sites associated with the American 
Revolution and the War of 1812. The 
historic preservation study will focus 
national attention on the extant resource: 
of these two wars and generate preser- 1 
vation action at the battlefields. 

The American Battlefield Protection 
Program will oversee and administer the 
two-year project on behalf of the Secre-i 
tary of the Interior and the Director of 
the National Park Service. The ABPP j 
managed the successful Civil War Sites i 
Advisory Commission Study from 1 99 1 - ; 

The legislation creating the Revolu- 
tionary War and War of 1 8 1 2 study 
authorizes up to $750,000 for the entire j 
investigation. As of March 1997, 

See REV/1812, page 2 

ABPP Contact 

On the updated ABPP information 
card recently sent to battlefield organi- 
zations, Hampton Tucker's phone 
number was listed incorrectly. His 
correct number is (202) 343-3580. 

When mailing correspondence to 
Kathy Schlegel, the ABPP's contact 
in the Northeast Field Area, please 
note her office's address change: 


U.S. Custom House, 3rd Floor 

200 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19106 


Published by the National Park Service 

Roger G. Kennedy 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director 

de Tee! Patterson Tiller 
Chief, Heritage Preservation Ser\>ices 

H. Bryan Mitchell 

Acting Chief, American Battlefield 

Protection Program 

Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

Battlefield Update is published quarterly 

and is available free of charge. Send 

articles, news items, and correspondence 

to the Editor, Battlefield Update, 

National Park Service, American 

Battlefield Protection Program, P.O. Box 

37 127, Suite 250, Washington, DC 20013- 

7 127; (202) 343-3449; FAX (202) 343- 1 836; 

tanya gossett(S^ 

REV/1812, from page 1 

however. Congress has appropriated no 
funds for the study, and the President has 
not included any such appropriations in 
the Department of the Interior FY98 
budget proposal. The ABPP cannot 
begin the study prior to receiving appro- 

The ABPP will host three strategy 
meetings in June 1997 to define the 
scope and type of resources to be 
included in the study and outline a 
methodology to carry out the project. 
The meetings are tentively scheduled to 
be held in Boston, MA, Washington, DC, 
and Charleston, SC. 

If you have any information about 
intact or threatened Revolutionary 
War or War of 1812 battlefields, 
please contact Ginger Carter at (202) 
343-1210, Tanya Gossett at (202) 
343-3449, or Hampton Tucker at 
(202) 343-3580. 

Deaccessioning NPS 

Museum Objects 

Recently the American Battlefield 
Protection Program has received letters 
from several organizations requesting 
surplus reproduction cannons, markers, 
carriages, and related objects for dona- 
tion to their battlefields. The NPS, as 
mentioned in the Ominbus Parks and 
Public Lands Management Act of 1996, 
can deaccession (permanently remove 
museum collections from NPS ownership 
and custody) such items from park 
museum collections and donate these 
items to non-profit organizations. How- 
ever, there exist strict guidelines for 
deaccessioning NPS museum objects. 
The official NPS Museum Hand- 
book, Part 11, Museum Records, 
Chapter 6, Deaccessioning spells out 
all legal procedures that need to be 
followed in order to deaccession an 

object. The Handbook discusses who 
determines which objects to 
deaccession, what needs to be consid- 
ered before deaccessioning museum 
objects, and what the steps are for 
deaccessioning. NPS park staff should 
be familiar with the procedures outlined 
in the Handbook. 

The ABPP cannot authorize a 
deaccessioning action from a National 
Park. Requests for museum object 
donations should be addressed to the 
NPS's Museum Management Program. 
However, many battle-related items in 
high demand are currently unavailable. 
According to Ann Hitchcock, Chief 
Curator of the NPS, "The Nafional Park 
Service does not have in its inventory 
any surplus cannon of the Civil War 
period. All guns mounted and on the 
field are marking historic artillery 
positions. Indeed, many of our Civil 
War parks do not have sufficient cannon 
to identify and interpret key artillery 

Hitchcock recommends the follow- 
ing manufacturers of reproduction 
cannons and carriages: 

Lebanon Pattern Shops, Inc., 504 E. 
Canal Street, Lebanon, PA 17046, 

(717) 272-8158; 

Paulson Brothers Ordnance Corp., 
P.O. Box 121, Clear Lake, Wl 

54005, (715) 263-3300; and 

South Bend Replicas, Inc., 61650 
Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46614, 
(219) 289-4500. 

For further information, please 
contact the National Park Service, 
Museum Management Program, P.O. 
Bo.x 37127, Suite 230. Washington, 
DC 20013-7127, or (202) 343-8138. 

Commission to Work with 
Shenandoah Valley Sites 

Section 606 of the Omnibus Parks and 
Public Lands Management Act of 1996 
established the Shenandoah Valley 
Battleflelds National Historic 
District m Virgmia. The Act directs 
the National Park Service to work with 
a commission and a local management 
entity to protect and interpret the 
historic resources in the Shenandoah 
Valley associated with the Civil War 
battles that occurred there. The long- 
term management and operation of the 
historic district will be the responsibility 
of a yet-to-be-created management 
organizataion. In the meantime, the 
Secretary of the Interior will appoint a 
commission, and through the NPS, will 
provide assistance to the commission in 
developing a management plan for the 
historic district. 

The commission is required to 
submit a draft plan within three years 
of its first meeting. The plan will 
include: ( 1 ) an inventory of properties 
that should be preserved because of 
historic significance; (2) provision for 
the protection and interpretation of the 
district's historic resources; (3) provi- 
sions for the establishment of a 
management entity; (4) provisions for 
implementing continuing interpretation 
and visitor programs; (5) locations for 
visitor contact and interpretive facilities; 
and (6) provisions for uniform historical 
markers and wayside exhibits, and 
living history demonstrations. The NPS 
will provide staff in the Shenandoah 
Valley to assist the commission. 

Civil War sites located in the 
Shenandoah Valley include: First 
Kemstown, McDowell, Front Royal, 
First Winchester, Cross Keys, Port 
Republic, Second Winchester, New 
Market, Piedmont, Cool Spring, Second 
Kemstown, Opequon or Third Win- 
chester, Fisher's Hill, Tom's Brook, and 
Cedar Creek. These sites are exam- 
ined in the 1993 NPS report C/vz7 War 

Sites in the Shenandoah Valley of 
Virginia. A limited number of copies 
are still available at no cost. Send 
requests to the ABPP at the address on 
the back page of this newsletter. The 
report is also accessible on the internet 
at 1 .html. 

Treatment Approaches 

FOR Historic Battlefield 


The Secretary of the Interior is respon- 
sible for establishing professional 
standards and providing advice on the 
preservation of cultural resources listed 
in or eligible for listing in the National 
Register of Historic Places. In partial 
fulfillment of this responsibility, the 
Secretary of the Interior's Standards for 
Historic Preservation Projects were 
developed in 1976. They consisted of 
seven sets of standards for the acquisi- 
tion, protection, stabilization, preserva- 
tion, rehabilitation, restoration, and 
reconstruction of historic buildings. 

Since their publication in 1 976, the 
Secretary's Standards have been used 
by State Historic Preservation Officers 
and the National Park Service to ensure 
that projects receiving federal money or 
tax benefits were reviewed in a consis- 
tent manner nationwide. The principles 
embodied in the Standards have also 
been adopted by hundreds of preserva- 
tion commissions across the country m 
local design guidelines. 

In 1992, the Standards were revised 
so that they could be applied to all 
historic resource types included in the 
National Register of Historic Places- 
buildings, structures, sites, objects, 
districts, and landscapes. The revised 
Standards were reduced to four sets by 
incorporating protection and stabilization 
into preservation, and by eliminating 
acquisition, which is no longer consid- 
ered a treatment. Re-titled The Secre- 
tary of the Interior 's Standards for 

the Treatment of Historic Properties, 
this new, modified version addresses 
four treatments: preservation, rehabilita- 
tion, restoration, and reconstruction. Th 
Guidelines for the Treatment of 
Cultural Landscapes illustrate how to 
apply these four treatments to cultural 
landscapes in a way that meets the 

The Guidelines for the Treatment 
of Cultural Landscapes provide 
guidance to cultural landscape owners, ' 
stewards and managers, landscape 
architects, preservation planners, 
architects, contractors, and project 
reviewers prior to and during the plan- 
ning and implementation of project work 
The American Battlefield Protection 
Program highly recommends this 1 50- 
page, richly illustrated publication to 
battlefield site managers and others 
whose decisions influence the character 
of historic battlefield landscapes. ' 

The Secretary of the Interior's j 
Standards for the Treatment of His- ' 
toric Properties with Guidelines for 
the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes 
IS available from the Government 
Printing Office. The GPO stock number 
is 024-005-0 1171-4. The prfce is $ 1 6.00 
Place orders by calling (202) 512-1 800, 1 
from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. eastern time , 


Tim Stuulary of Uie InkMiur'B 

Slandarcls tor V\e Tr««lment o( 

Historic Piut»rU«s 

Guld*lln*t for 

the Treatment of 

Cultural Landscapes 

US OM|ktetn<»>rf iifaiMiiAMto* 

AWARDEES, from page 1 

ity of Franklin $11,500 

irter House Area Preservation Plan 

le City of Franklin will develop a 
aster plan for the Carter House area 
at identifies where the battle was 
ught, evaluates the current status of 
stone properties, and determines the 
;st alternatives for the site's protec- 
)n, enhancement, and preservation. 

y. R. Johnson, City Administrator, 
ity of Franklin (615)791-3217 

ivil War Trust (CWT) $32,250 

ivil War Explorer Educational 

le CWT will create a version of its 
ivil War Explorer software for use as 
1 educational tool. Materials will be 
lapted for use by students of different 
;es and will include teachers' guides 
id lesson plans. 

ilie Fix, Explorer Project Coordinator, 
WT (703)516-4944. 

riends of Manassas National 
attlefield Park $15,000 

uart's Hill Exhibit 

he Friends will design a traveling 
chibit for display at the Stuart's Hill 
isitor Contact Center at the park. The 
chibit will highlight the acquisition of 
e Stuart's Hill tract, the controversy 
irrounding the site's protection, and its 
tie in the creation of the ABPP in 

erri Bard, Historian, Manassas NBP 

riends of Moccasin Bend National 
ark. Inc. $20,000 

reserx'ation Management Plan for 
ioccasin Bend 

his local non-profit organization will 
nplement recommendations made in 
le Chickamauga and Chattanooga 
ivil War Sites Assessment by 

lenti tying and evaluating significant 

battlefield features; preparing a report 
describing activities at Moccasin Bend 
that were key to the Chattanooga 
campaign; and providing preservation 
and interpretation recommendations for 
Civil War resources. 

Dan Saieed, Board Member, Friends of 
Moccasin Bend National Park 

Friends of the National Parks at 
Gettysburg, Inc. $22,000 

Reevaluation and Revision of the 
Gettysburg National Battlefield 
Historic District 

This project entails a critical evaluation 
and assessment of the Gettysburg 
Battlefield Historic District, which 
encompasses many sites associated 
with the Battle of Gettysburg outside the 
Gettysburg National Military Park. The 
ABPP is funding the final phase of the 
project: nomination of eight sites associ- 
ated with the battle to the National 
Register of Historic Places. 

Victoria B. Greenlee, Executive Direc- 
tor, Friends of the National Parks at 

Gettysburg (717)334-0772 

Friends of the Texas Historical 
Commission, Inc. $15,000 

The Civil War in Texas, Official Map 
and Guide 

The Texas Historical Commission 
(THC), working through its friends 
group, will develop Texas military 
history maps for various historic periods. 
The first map of the series will be The 
Civil War in Texas, Official Map and 
Guide. The THC's objective is to pull 
together the many strands of the state's 
Civil War history into a map that will 
relate the story of what the war meant 
to the men and women who lived in 
Texas at that time. 

Lisa Harvell, Program Administrator, 
Division of Architecture, THC 

Friends of the Wilderness Battle- 
field $9,000 

Grant's Knoll Interpretation 

The Friends will fabricate three inter- 
pretive waysides for Gen. U.S. Grant's 
headquarters site during the May 1864 

Robert L. Williams, Chairman, Friends 
of the Wilderness Battlefield 

Jumonville Preservation Associa- 
tion $3,500 

Braddock Road/Dunbar's Camp 


The Jumonville Preservation Associa- 
tion will develop two interpretive 
waysides for the French and Indian War 
site known as "Dunbar's Camp." 

Dr. Walter Powell, President, 
Jumonville Preservation Association 


Kennesaw Mountain National 
Battlefield $30,000 

Bushy Mountain Line Related Lands 
Consen'ation Plan 

This project is an innovative land use 
and cultural resource management 
protection plan for the remaining 
fortifications outside the boundaries of 
Kennesaw Mountain National Battle- 
field Park. The earthworks under study 
stretch from Lost Mountain through 
Pine Mountain to Brushy Mountain in 
Cobb County, Georgia. Currently, no 
plan or program exists for the perma- 
nent preservation of this Civil War 
trench system. 

John F. Cissell, Superintendent, 
Kennesaw Mountain NB 

Maury County Visitors Bureau 


Spring Hill Battlefield Interpretation 

ABPP funding will provide for interpre- 
tation of the Spring Hill Battlefield in 
Tennessee. Twenty-three wayside 
markers will be fabricated. 

Alton Kelley, Executive Director, 
Maury County Visitors Bureau 


Mill Springs Battlefield Association 
(MSBA) $10,000 

Mill Springs Battlefield Interpretation 

The MSBA will begin implementing the 
ABPP-funded Mill Springs Interpreta- 
tion Plan by developing four interpretive 
signs for the site. 

Ron Nicholas, Administrator, MSBA 

Mississippi Department of Archives 
and History (MDHA) $15,000 

Big Black River Bridge Battlefield 
Preserx'ation Plan 

The MDAH will prepare a Master 
Batdefield Preservation/Interpretation 
Action Plan for the Big Black River 
Bridge Batdefield m Hinds County, 
Mississippi. The plan will establish 
preservation priorities, assist in the 
creation of a battlefield preservation 
organization with which the MDAH and 
other preservation entities can work, 
and create a process through which the 
battlefield can be preserved and devel- 
oped for public interpretation. 

Michael F. Beard, Civil War Sites 
Historian, MDAH (601)359-6940 

Northern Virginia Regional Park 
Authority $10,000 

Ball's Bluff Battlefield Awareness 

The Northern Virginia Regional Park 
Authority will organize a program to 
train volunteers to interpret the battle- 
field. Trained volunteers will present a 
variety of programs on a regular basis, 
draw and handle more visitors, and help 
create a positive relationship between 
visitors and the park. 

Paul E. McCray, Park Manager, Ball's 
Bluff Battlefield (703)729-0596 

New York State Office of Parks, 

Recreation and Historic Preserva- 
tion $15,000 

Oriskany Battlefield Protection Plan 

The ABPP is funding the development 
of a battlefield action plan and public 
educational materials to foster site 
protection and preservation of Oriskany 
battlefield in New York State. Tempo- 
rary closure in 1991 raised concerns for 
the Revolufionary War battlefield's long- 
term preservation. In concert with New 
York State Parks' renewed restoration 
initiative, this funding will support steps 
critical to focusing community and 
professional consensus on a new vision 
for the battlefield and the community's 
role in its preservation. 

Nancy Demyttenaere, Regional Historic 
Preservation Supervisor (315) 492- 1 756 

NPS, Southwest Systems Office 
(SWSO) $3,200 

Hispanics in the Civil War Workshop 

The SWSO will hold a two-day work- 
shop on May 9-10, 1997, that will focus 
on the impact of the Civil War on the 
Hispanic community, primarily in 
northern New Mexico. ABPP funds 
will go toward scholarships and printing 
conference materials for workshop 

Duane Alire, Superintendent, Pecos 
NHP (505)757-6414 

Partners in Parks $21,700 

Community Outreach at Petersburg 

This project continues efforts to assist 
Petersburg National Battlefield in 
planning and implementing a strategy for 
increased community involvement in 
Civil War preservation issues and 
actions, both within and outside the 

Sarah G. Bishop, President, Partners in 
Parks (202) 364-7244 

Rich Mountain Battlefield Founda- 
tion, Inc. (RMBF) $19,800 

Rich Mountain Battlefield Education 
for Preservation 

The RMBF will focus on educational 
priorities to further the preservation of 
the Rich Mountain Battlefield Civil Wai 
Site. The project will increase public 
awareness through extensive interpreta 
tion and direct stabilization of resources 
Goals include expanded interpretive 
exhibits, a multi-media computer presen 
tation, and systematic monitoring of 
endangered battlefield features. 

Phyllis Baxter, Executive Director, ' 
RMBF (304)637-7424 

Rutherford County, Tennessee 

Consensus Building for Unprotected] 
Areas of the Stones River National i 

Rutherford County will create commu- 
nity awareness about the significance o: 
unprotected landscape resources 
associated with the Battle of Stones 
River and will foster public and private i 
support for the preservation of these I 
resources by developing marketing tools 
and a mass media campaign. 

Nancy Allen, County Executive, Ruther 
ford County (615) 898-7745^ 

Save Historic Antietam Foundation' 
(SHAF) $10,400 

J862 Maryland Campaign Interpre- 
tation & Preservation Initiatives i 

This project will provide a comprehen- 
sive interpretive program that 
encompasses all aspects of the 1862 
Maryland Campaign. SHAF will 
develop a guide that covers the primar> 
sites in the campaign: Monocacy, South 
Mountain, Harpers Ferry, Antietam, and 

Todd Bolton, Chief, Visitor Services 
Branch, SHAF (304) 535-6223 

For more information regarding 
ABPP funding in general, please 
contact Ginger Carter at (202) 343- > 
1210 or write to the ABPP at the \ 
address on the hack page. ' 

Battlefield Preservation Profile 
Bentonville, North Carolina 

1 late January 1 865, Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's army marched north 
•om Savannah, Georgia, to crush Confederate resistance in the Carolinas. By mid- 
ebruary, the Union army had occupied Columbia, South Carolina. Confederate 
fen. Joseph E. Johnston collected his scattered forces m a desperate attempt to 
npede Sherman's advance. On March 19, Johnston attacked Union troops 
ommanded by Maj . Gen. Henry Slocum near Bentonville. Fighting continued into 
le next day before the outnumbered Confederates withdrew in the face of Federal 
enforcements. Having used up his army's offensive strength on a failed attack, 
ahnston retreated to Smithfield, North Carolina. With the end of the war in sight, 
ahnston surrendered to Sherman on Apnl 26 at Durham's Station, North Carolina, 
fter learning of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court 
[ouse, Virginia. 

Preservation activity at Bentonville began during the early 1 950s when a local 
hapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy purchased the historic Harper 
[ouse and the adjacent 51 acres. The State of North of Carolina received the 
roperty as a donation in 1 957 and built a visitor center in 1 965 . An increase in tourist 
isitations during the early 1 980s prompted the North Carolina General Assembly to 
cquire an additional 36 acres. In 1986 local residents formed the Bentonville 
battleground Historical Association (BBHA) to encourage the battlefield's 
reservation and to assist in its interpretation. Since 1 990 five properties totaling 43 
cres have been added to the site: the Association for the Preservation of Civil War 
ites purchased seven acres; The Conservation Fund presented the state with one 
ere donated by a local resident; the BBHA made two purchases totaling 14 acres; 
nd the Recreation and Natural Heritage Trust, a state organization, purchased 2 1 
cres. In March 1995, a reenactment during the 130th anniversary of the battle 
lised $24,000 to protect the site. The battlefield, listed in the National Register of 
[istoric Places in 1 97 1 , was designated a National Historic Landmark in June 1 996. 
hrough a cooperative agreement with the ABPP established in 1996, the BBHA 
as begun to develop a comprehensive resource protection and battlefield 
reservation plan. In 1 997, the ABPP awarded the BBHA with funds to complete 
comprehensive Global Positioning Survey of the entire battlefield. Currently, the 
IBHA is raising additional money to complete the comprehensive battlefield 
reservation plan and to build a new visitor center. 

Although a total of 130 acres of the site are protected today, only 20 are 
onsidered to be in an area of significant fighting. The remaining area within the 
,695-acre core of this battlefield, as determined by the Civil War Sites Advisory 
Commission in 1993, is unprotected, owned by private interests, and primarily in 
gricultural use. Threats to the site include the expansion of a large storage facility 
wned by North Carolina Natural Gas, local farmers shifting to non-traditional 
griculture practices, logging operations that expose earthworks to erosion, and 
evelopment related to the completion of 1-40, located six miles east of the battlefield. 

To learn more about preservation activity at this site contact John Goode, 
'entonville Battleground Historical Association, P.O. Box 27, Newton Grove, 
IC 28366, (910) 594-0789. 

ISTEA Enhancement 

In 1991, Congress passed the 
Intermodel Surface Transportation 
Efficiency Act (ISTEA), which autho- 
rized federal funds over six years for 
highways, highway safety, and mass 
transportation. Included in ISTEA's 
Surface Transportation Program was 
the requirement for states to set aside 
10% of these funds for transportation 
enhancement projects. Historic preser- 
vation and conservation activities were 
identified in the Act as eligible for 
enhancement funding. 

In 132 years, no other program has 
provided as much revenue for Civil War 
preservation activities. ISTEA grants 
accompanying matching funds have 
generated more than $43 million for 
Civil War preservation projects. Federal 
highway enhancement funds provided 
more than $23 million matched by $20 
million from other sources for projects 
at 50 battlefields in 12 states. 

In addition to fee and easement 
purchases at threatened battlefields, 
ISTEA-funded projects have included 
such diverse activities as monument 
restoration on the Nashville battlefield, 
archaeological research at a Confeder- 
ate munitions foundry in Alabama, and 
landscape work for the African Ameri- 
can Civil War Memorial in Washington, 

Several states— especially Maryland, 
Kentucky, Virginia, and Alabama— have 
effectively used ISTEA enhancement 
funds to their fullest potential. For a 
comprehensive list of ISTEA enhance- 
ment projects at Civil War sites, please 
contact the Civil War Trust. 

ISTEA legislation expires in 1997. 
For information about the possible 
reauthorization of ISTEA, contact The 
Civil War Trust, 2101 Wilson Boule- 
vard, Suite 1120, Arlington, VA 
22201, (800) CWT-RUST. 

American Military 
History for Kids 

The NPS's Heritage Preservation 
Services Progiam and the Department 
of Defense's Legacy Resources Man- 
agement Program are pleased to 
announce the release of a heritage 
education book, American Defenders 
of Land, Sea & Sky. 

Targeted for kids, families, and 
teachers, American Defenders uses 56 
nationally significant places— many are 
National Historic Landmarks— to make 
important points about building a nation 
over time. Beginning with the shots at 
Lexington Green that signaled the start 


•4 Drauings 



of the American Revolution, it moves 
forward in time through the War of 
1812, the Struggle for Western Terri- 
tory, the Civil War, the Spanish- 
American War, both World Wars, and 
into the Cold War. 

The intent of American Defenders 
is to show what "We the People" have 
done in the past and how it has affected 
our present and will shape our future. 
Kids can color in the book's illustrations 
with crayons, pencils, or pens. Teach- 
ers can use the book for structured 
classroom discussion and activities. An 

excellent teacher's guide has been 
written by Dr. Patricia A. Bonner. 

American Defenders of Land, 
Sea. & Sky may be ordered for $5.50 
through the Government Printing Office, 
at (202) 512-1 800, fax (202) 5 1 2-2250. 
A 25% discount is offered for pur- 
chases of 100 or more copies sent to the 
same address. 

The teaching guide may be 
requested from Heritage Preservation 
Services, National Park Service. P.O. 
Box 37127, Washington, D.C. 20012- 
7127, (202) 343-9583, or e-mail 


The Association for the Preservation of 
Civil War Sites will host a conference 
entitled Till the Sun Goes Down to 

celebrate Its 10th anniversary. The 
two-day conference will be held April 
24-27, 1997, at the Sheraton Four Points 
Hotel in Hagerstown, Maryland, and will 
include lectures, tours, and more. 

The feature event will take place at 
the Maryland Theater on Friday, April 
25, when actors from the Turner 
Network movie Gettysburg share 
dramatic readings, show film clips and 
reminisce about their experiences 
working on the film. Scheduled guests 
include Sam Elliot, who portrayed Gen. 
John Buford, and Jeff Shara, author of 
Gods and Generals. 

For more information, contact the 
APCWS at 1 1 Public Square, Suite 
200. Hagerstown. MD 21740-5510. 
(301) 665-1400. 

A symposium entitled The War in 
Kentucky will be held at Campbellsville 
University in Kentucky on July 29- 
August 3, 1997. Hosted by the Ameri- 
can Civil War Institute of Campbellsville 

University, the six-day symposium will 
include scholars from around the nation 
speaking on all aspects of Kentucky's 
role in the Civil War. The cost is $525 
and includes lodging, meals, transporta- 
tion to and from the battlefields, and 

More information can be ob- 
tained by contacting Kent Masterson 
Brown, Director, American Civil War 
Institute, 1 University Drive, 
Campbellsville, KY 42718-2799 or 
call (502) 789-5213. 


The ABPP has moved its Web site! 

The new address is j 

Please note the change in your Web : 
browser's bookmarks. 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
P.O. Box 37127, Suite 250 
Washington, DC 20013-7127 




PERMIT No. G-83 


Regulations of the U.S. Department of the Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted 
Programs on the basis of race, color, national ongin, age, or disability. Any person who believes lie or she lias been 
discnniinated against in any program operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should wnte to; Director, Equal 
Opportunity Program, U.S. Deparmient of the Interior, National Park Service, P.O. Bo.x 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127. 


APR 2 3 1997 



Summer 1997 


newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

U.S. Department of tfie Interior 4 National Park Service 4 Heritage Preservation Services 

Issue No. 6( 

Coin Grants Given to Four 

Since the beginning of 1 997, the Secretary 
of the Intenor, working in partnership with 
The Civil War Trust, has authorized the 
expenditure of $624,480 in Civil War 
commemorative coin surcharge revenues. 
These grants will preserve significant 
battlefield land at Mill Springs in Kentucky, 
Gettysburg in Pennsylvania, Stones River in 
Tennessee, and Fredericksl urg in Virginia. 

The Mill Springs Battlefield Asso- 
ciation will use $ 1 8,780 in commemorative 
coin revenues to help buy two parcels of 
land compnsing 14 acres (total cost 
$93,900). The first parcel contains the area 
where the 9th Ohio and 1 0th Indiana ' s 
bayonet charge routed the Confederate left 
and won the January 1 9, 1 862, Battle of 
Mill Springs for the Union. The second 
parcel contains the site of the main Confed- 
erate field hospital and the site of brutal 
land to hand fighting between Union and 
Confederate pickets. 

At Gettysburg, $343,200 in coin 
■evenues will enable the Friends of the 
Vational Parks at Gettysburg purchase 
listoric easements on 1 59 acres of farmland 
It two significant sites (total cost 
5443,200). The first site was the scene of 
;avalry fightmg between Maj. Gen. J. E. B. 
5tuart and Brig. Gen. George Armstrong 
I^uster. A fi^ame bank bam on the property 
survives from the time of the battle and is 
me of only three identified buildings within 
he authorized boundary of Gettysburg 
National Military Park to show battle 
lamage. The second site was the scene of 
he desperate engagement between Con- 
ederate Colonel William C. Gates' 1 5th 

Alabama Infantry and Union Col. Joshua L. 
Chamberlain's 20th Maine at Little Round 

The Stones River National Battle- 
field will use its award of $ 1 52,500 to 
complete the purchase of 23.5 acres of 
battlefield land in Rutherford County, 
Tennessee (total cost $305,000). This 
property was the scene of intense fighting on 
January 2, 1 863, the third day of the Battle 
of Stones River. The Union victory at 
Stones River wrested control of 
Murfi-eesboro and middle Tennessee fi^om 
the Confederates. The battle was an 
important step in the Union dnve to split the 
Confederacy, and led to the Battle of 
Chickamauga, the Atlanta Campaign, and 
Sherman's March to the Sea. The Stones 
River National Battlefield will acquire and 
manage the property. 

Finally, Civil War commemorative coin 
revenues totalling $1 10,000, and an 
additional donation of $20,000 from the 
Central Virginia Battlefields Trust, allowed 
the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania 
National Military Park to purchase 8.2 
acres of battlefield land at Marye's Heights 
at a higher price than the assessed value of 
the land. The National Park Service paid 
the majority of the $ 1 .65 million bill. 

The famous ridge was the focal point of 
the December 1 862 Battle of 
Fredencksburg. From their strong defen- 
sive position along the heights. Confederates 
commanded by Lt. Gen. James Longstreet 
bloodily repulsed the 11 Corps of the Union 
army, inflicting approximately 8,000 
casualties. The National Park Service 
determined that fee simple acquisition of this 
property was essential to the integrity of the 

See COIN GRANTS, page 7 



Illinois and Kentucky 
Launch Heritage Trail 

On June 20, 1997 
the State of Illinois 
and the Common- 
wealth of 
Kentucky an- 
nounced the ^ 
planned formation' 
ofa Civil War j 
Heritage Trail that' 
will link sites along 
the Ohio River in i 
Illinois and Kentucky. Public and private 
entities in both states will work to identify, 
evaluate, interpret, and promote historic " 
sites that will be included on the trail. The 
Illinois/Kentucky Ohio River Civil War 
Heritage Trail is tenfively scheduled to 
open to the public by December 1998. 

Sites along the trail will relate to military 
operations, civilian unrest, political activities, 
and commercial and industrial activity from 
1861-1 865 . The trail corridor extends frorr 
Cairo, Illinois, to Uniontown and 
Henderson, Kentucky. Locations in Illinois i 
that have to date been tentatively identified ' 
as trail sites include: Cairo, Mound City, \ 
Metropolis, Bay City, Battery Rock, Saline 
Landing, and Old Shawneetown. Locations 
in Kentucky being considered for inclusion ] 
on the trail are: Smith Mills, Uniontown, ' 
Cypress Slough, Weston, Smithland, ' 

Paducah, and Fort Holt. Other sites will bej 
identi fied through extensive research and 
public input. 

The Illinois/Kentucky Ohio River Civil 
War Heritage Trail could be promoted as a 
destination in itself or as part of current 

See TRAIL, page 2 

TR_\IL, from page 1 

scenic highway or bicycle hiking trails. 
The trail could also be added to The Cml 
War Trust's nationwide Ci\"il War Disco\ - 
er\' Trail and the Lo\%"er Mississippi \'alle>" 
Ci\"il Wax Rentage Trail. 

niinois and Kentucky" saw more Ci\il 
War action than many people realize. The 
Ohio River was a major industnal and 
commercial asset for the Umon. Confed- 
erate militap.- and guemlla bands operated 
along the Ohio, often with the help of 
southern s>"mpathizers liMng in Hlmois and 
in the bitterh" dnided Umon state of 
Kentucky. Union gunboats regularly 
patrolled the Ohio River, frequently 
skirmishing \\ith Confederate troops on 
the Kentucky side. After capturing 
Smithland Kentucky-, Union forces \\ere 
able to ad\"ance down the Ohio's tributar- 
ies--the Cumberland and Tennessee 
Rivers— piercing \\estem Kentuck\- and 


Published by the National Park Sen. ice 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 
Chief, Heritage Presenation Services 

H.Br\an Mitchell 

Acting Chief, American Battlefield 

Protection Program 

Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerr\- Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

Battlefield Update is pubUshed quarterly 

and IS available free of charge. Send 

articles, news items, and correspondence 

to the Editor. Battlefield Update, National 

Park Service. Rentage Preservation 

Services, .\merican Battlefield Protection 

Program. 1 849 C St N'\V. Washington. DC 

20240: (202) 343-3449; F.AJX (202) 343- 



Tennessee. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S.Grant 
used Cairo. Illmois, as a staging area for his 
troops before mo\Tng south to capture 
Mcksburg. Mississippi. 

For more about the Illinois/Kentucky 
Ohio River Civil War Heritage Trail, 
contact Steve Thompson of the Illinois 
Historic preservation Agency at (21 7) 
"^82-8168 or Joe Brent of the Kentucky 
Heritage Council at (502) 564-7005. 

Geneil\l M.\N-\GEMENT 

Pu\NNiNG Begins .\t 


On May 2 1 . 1 99". Gett\'sburg National 
Militar.- Park held the first in a series of 
public meetings designed to help guide the 
park's future management and operations. 
This meeting marked the beginning of tfie 
park's General Management Plan (GMP) 
imtiative. The park's current GMP, com- 
pleted m 1 982. does not address issues 
currently facing the park. The new long- 
range plan \\ill take a fresh look at the park 
management and operations and determme 
how the park can best meet the challenges 
of the next 1 5 to 20 years. 

A GMP IS a tool that sets the basic 
philosophy and broad guidance for manage- 
ment decisions that affect a park's resources 
andthe\'isitor'sexpenence. Dunngthe 
plannmg process, the National Park Ser\nce 
assesses current conditions, predicts future 
changes at the park, and considers the 
hopes and concerns of the mterested public. 
The final plan \%ill make general recommen- 
dations about cultural resources 
management facihties operations, and 
interpreti\"e programs. 

"The Nanonal Park Seivice staff at 
Gettysburg in\ntes all indi\'iduals and groups 
who share our love of this sacred ground 
and our concern for its future to join us in an 
important pollcy-settmg effort," said park 
Siq>enntendent John A. Latschar. If you 
would like to be on the mailing list to receive 
planning newsletters, advance notice of 
\\ orkshops and public meetmgs, and copies 

of the draft plan for comment please 
contact Gettv'sburg National Military- Park, 
97 TaneytownRoad, Gett>'sburg. PA 
17325. or call (717) 334-1 124, ext 452. 

Frederick Col^nty Wins 
Planning Aw.\rd 

On May 5. 1 997, the Virginia Planning 
Association (\'AP.\) aN'.'arded the 
Fredenck Count}' Department of Plannmg 
an Honorable Mention for its Frederick 
County- Winchester Battlefield Set- 
work Plan . The \'APA. a chapter of the 
Amencan Plannmg .Association, presents 
yearly professional planning awards "to 
encourage and pro\ide recogmtion to those 
mdmduals or groups and projects that 
demonstrate a high le\-el of excellence m 

The Battlefield Network Plan was 
de\"eloped to protect sensitive CimI \^'ar 
battlefields m the Cit>' of Wmchester and 
Fredenck Count>-.\'irgmia. It defines and 
develops specific actions that can be taken 
to protect these lands. The plan does not 
suppose that area battlefields become 
National Parks or assume state or local 
go\"emmental control is the best option for 
preser\"ation. Rather, the 5arf/e//eW 
Network Plan sets forth strategies that 
combme the efforts ofbusuiesses, go\'em- 
ment officials, pnx^ate citizens, and 
histonans to saxe these sites from suburban 
development pressures. It identifies tourism 
opportunities of Cnil \\'ar hentage preser- 
\ation and mtegrates these opportunities 
mto the o\"erall economic dexelopment 
strategy for the region. The plan is an 
excellent example of how citizens and 
interest groups can \\ork together to 
de\elop solutions for preserxing their 
community's Ci\Tl War legacy. 

For more information about the 
Fredenck Count}- Wmchester Battlefield 
Netvsork Plan, please contact Kris 
Tiemey at (540) 665-5651. Story 
originally published in the \'.AP.A. 
Newsbnef, Ma\-June 1997. 


The AiiJ-'P has recenily upgraded its computerised subscribers database. Please fill out and return this form to ensure thai 
the- most current and accurate information is added V) the new database. The returned form will also verify that you or 
your organization wish Uj continue receiving this newsletter and mher ABPP notices. The ABf-'P d(x:s not distribute thi", 

jnforrriiition V; oT.h'-r orj^anizations. 




C^r^ani/.alion Type 

fGovemmcnt, Non-Profit, Corporation, Other) 

Organization World Wide Web Site Address 
^if dpphcable) 





Zip Code 

Optional information: 



E-mail Address 

.Mav we e-mail vou AiiJ-'P notices and information? Ye* 


Favorite Topics 

(e.g., Civil War, Indian Wars, forts, shipwrecks, planning, interpretation, heritage tourism, etc.) 

Please clip the completed form and return to: 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Proteaion Program 
1849 C St, NW 
Washington, DC 20240 

Or, FAX the completed form Uj: 

Larry Hunter, Publications Ox>rdinator 
(202) 343-3803 

Or, e-mail requested information to: 

jn.'^..N'K YOU? 

ABPP AwAPa)s Additional 
Grants for 1997 

t The ABPP has awarded several more 

< competitive grants since the last Battle- 
field Update -^^s^pxybMshedi. For more 

' information on the specific projects, please 

< contact the person listed with the project 

< descnption. 

i Association for the Preservation of 
! Civil War Sites (APCWS) $69,400 
1 Land Acquisition Workshop; Brandy 
] Station Interpretive Signage; and Trans- 
] Mississippi Boundary Survey 

1 The APCWS will undertake three distinct 
I projects. It will host a two-day training 
; workshop on land acquisition designed for 
government officials, preservation groups, 
: local historical groups, and the general 
. public. Participants will learn about 
strategies needed to acquire land for 
preservation and conservation. The 
APCWS will also develop an interpretive 
plan and eight interpretive signs for the 
APCWS-owned portion of the Brandy 
Station battlefield. Finally, the organization 
will conduct a boundary survey/study of the 
Trans-Mississippi Civil War battlefields- 
including Praine D'Ane, Arkansas, and 
Valverde, New Mexico— that the Civil War 
Sites Advisory Commission classified as 
Priority n sites (battlefields with opportuni- 
ties for comprehensive preservation). 

JeffDriscoll, Director of Programs and 
Properties, APCWS (30 1 ) 665 - 1 400. 

Cheyenne Cultural Center $1 0,000 

Battle of the Washita Oral Tradition 

The Cheyenne Cultural Center will gather 
oral traditions on the Battle of the Washita 
from identified Cheyenne and Arapaho 
peoples. These recordings will eventually 
be translated, compiled and given to the 
Oklahoma Historical Society- and the 
National Park Service for use at the 

Interpretive Center of the Washita Battle- 
field National Historic Site. 

Lawrence Hart, Project Director, Chey- 
enne Cultural Center (405) 323-6224 

The Civil War Trust (CWT) $20,000 

Citizens ' Battlefield Preservation Guide 

Working closely with the ABPP, the CWT 
will develop a guide for the public that 
addresses battlefield preservation issues 
such as planning, tourism, economic devel- 
opment, land acquisition, and archeology. 

Susan Braselton, Director of Programs, 
CWT (703) 3 12-7594 or Ginger Carter, 
Grants Manager, ABPP (202) 343- 1 2 1 

Illinois Historic Preservation Agency 

Illinios/Kentucky Ohio River Civil War 
Heritage Trail 

The Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, 
working with the Kentucky Heritage 
Council, will establish the Illinois/Kentucky 
Ohio River Civil War Heritage Trail 
advocacy partnership organization and will 
produce a Multiple Property nomination to 
the National Register of Historic Places for 
the historic sites on the trail. The agency 
will then design interpretive exhibits for the 
Illinois portion of the trail and create 
promotional materials for the trail initiative. 

Steve Thompson, Resource Protection 
Manager, Illinois Historic Preservation 
Agency (2 17) 782-8 168 

Kennesaw Mountain National 
Battlefield $30,000 

Brushy Mountain Line Related Lands 
Conservation Plan 

The park will sponsor a related lands study 
of the defensive line along Brushy Mountain 
taken up by Confederate forces during the 
Atlanta Campaign of 1 864. The study will 
identify and evaluate histonc fortifications 
along the twelve-mile line and propose 
alternatives forpreservation of those sites. 

JohnF. Cissell, Superintendent, Kennesaw 
Mountain NB (770) 427-4686 

Mississippi Department of Archives 
and History (MDAH) $15,000 

Champion Hill Battlefield Preservation 

The MDAH will prepare a Master Battle- 
field Preservation/Interpretation Action 
Plan for the Champion Hill Battlefield in 
Hinds County, Mississippi . The plan will 
establish preservation prionties, assist in the 
creation of a battlefield preservation 
organization with which the MDAH and 
other preservation entities can work, and 
create a process through which the battle- 
field can be preserved and interpreted. 

Michael Beard, Civil War Sites Histonan, 
MDAH (60 1)359-6940 

Reflection Riding $28,075 

Archeological Survey/Research on the 
Battle of Lookout Mountain 

Reflection Riding will perform histoncal and 
archeological research focusing on the 
historic features and activities associated 
with the Battle of Lookout Mountain and 
prepare a protection and interpretive plan, 
and an overall management plan for the 
Lookout Mountain area. 

Tony Gilbert, Business Manager, Reflection 
Riding (423)821-9582 

Valley Conservation Council (VCC) 

McDowell Battlefield/Staunton-to- 
Parkersburg Pike Project 

The VCC will continue to work on the 
McDowell Battlefield/Staunton-to- 
Parkersburg Pike Proj ect by researching 
easement opportunities and assisting local 
governments with cultural resources 

John Hutchinson, Board of Directors, 
Valley Conservation Council (540) 886- 

Revolutionary War and Wap. of 1812 News 

As a result of the passage of the Revolutionary War and 
War of 1 81 2 Historic Preservation Study Act of 1996, the 

American Battlefield Protection Program is focusing greater 
attention on military sites associated with those wars. The 
objective of the Study is to foster the protection of surviving 
Revolutionary War and War of 1 8 1 2 sites by gathering 
comprehensive information about these evocative and irre- 
placeable places and developing strategies for their 
preservation. A final Study report will provide local, state, 
and federal agencies, private organizations, and other battle- 
field stewards with alternatives for saving and interpreting 
these sites. 

The Study's authonzing legislation set a project budget of 
$750,000 for a two year study. Although Congress has yet to 
appropriate the fijnds to implement the Study, the ABPP has 
begun limited preparations so that the Study can be started 
immediately and completed on time. 

In an effort to identify as many potential historic sites as 
possible, the ABPP is compiling lists of military events 
associated with the Revolutionary War and the War of 1 8 1 2. 
These lists include the names and dates of events associated 
with regular and partisan terrestrial and naval operations, 
including battles, sieges, major troop movements, canton- 
ments, bombardments, and bumings. The lists are posted on 

the Web at and 

1812llst.htni, respectively. Additions to the lists are welcome. 

The ABPP is also in the process of fostering a network of non- 
profit organizations, academic insfitutions, and government 
agencies interested in promoting the preservation and interpreta- ^ 
fion of these sites. If your organization is interested in ' 

participating in the Revolutionary War and War of 1 8 1 2 Historic : 
Preservation Study once it begins, or if you are interested in ' 
receiving ABPP mailings regarding the Study, please contact the i 
ABPP at the address on the back page of this newsletter. 

During the week of June 9, the ABPP sponsored small group 
meetings in Atlanta, GA, Boston, MA, and Washington, DC, to j 
find out what several of our potential partners would like the 
Study to accomplish . Represented at the three meetings were 
U.S. Senators and Representatives, the National Park Service, 
State Historic Preservation Offices, the Oneida Indian Nation, 
national non-profit organizations, state park systems, local 
governments, pnvate histonc sites, and land conservancies. 
Participants discussed, among other topics, which categories of 
resources to include in the Study, possible site survey and 
evaluation methodologies, and how public educational initiatives 
could compliment the Study. The notes fi-om all three meetings 
will be available to the public in approximately eight weeks. I 

The American Battlefield Protection Program 
is pleased to announce the publication of 
"Altogether Fitting and Proper: Saving 
America's Battlefields," a special issue of the 
National Park Service's CRM magazine (v 
20, no. 5, 1997). The 48-page periodical in- 
cludes articles about conservation easement 
programs, grassroots battlefield preservation 
efforts, legal aspects of land protection, heri- 
tage tourism, landscape treatments, useful 
computer technologies for battlefield plan- 
ning and management, and creating 
successful battlefield preservation partner- 
ships. Many of the ideas expressed in these 

articles were presented at the Third National 
Conference on Battlefield Preservation 
in September 1996. 

The ABPP encourages battlefield friends 
groups, local governments, and other orga- 
nizations interested in the issues surrounding 
preservation of historic battlefield land to or- 
der this publication free of charge. To 
request copies, please contact Larry Hunter, 
Publications Coordinator, Heritage Preserva- 
tion Services, National Park Service, at (202) 
343-9583, FAX (202) 343-3803, or 

This publication can also be found on the Web! Go to and check out the Archive! 

Battlefield Preservation Profile 
Cedar Creek, Virginia 

rhroughout the Civil War, Union and Confederate forces campaigned for control of 
he Shenandoah Valley, a north-to-south transportation corridor and fertile agricultural 
egion in Virginia. In 1 864, Union Maj . Gen. Philip Sheridan was ordered to destroy 
Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early's army defending the valley. After a series of 
Jnion victories in September and early October 1 864, Sheridan believed Early's army 
vas no longer a threat. He moved his troops to Middletown, Virginia, where his men 
ested near Cedar Creek. On October 1 9, 1 864, Early ordered a surprise attack on 
he Union troops as they recuperated. Initially, the attack succeeded. Sheridan, 
lowever, attacked the flank of his opponent's outstretched line and compelled the 
I^onfederates to retreat in defeat. This Union victory marked the end of effective 
^Confederate resistance in the Shenandoah Valley; the South would never again launch 
in offensive in the region. The outcome of the battle also boosted President Lincoln's 
)opularity, helping him win re-election that November. 

Preservation activity at this site began in 1 964 when the owner of Belle Grove, an 
. 8th century mansion located on the battlefield, donated the home and an adjacent 
. 00 acres to the National Trust for Historic Preservation. In 1 969 the National Park 
Jervice prepared a study of the site and designated Belle Grove and 900 acres of the 
I'edar Creek battlefield a National Historic Landmark. Local residents established the 
iCedar Creek Battlefield Foundation (CCBF) in 1 988 after developers proposed 
milding an office and light industrial park on part of the site. By 1 989, CCBF, with 
issistance from the National Trust and The Association for the Preservation of Civil 
A'^ar Sites ( APCWS), had negotiated with the developer and financed the acquisition 
)f 158 acres. 

In 1 990, the Secretary of the Interior established the American Battlefield Protec- 
lon Program (ABPP), and Congress and the Secretary appointed the Civil War Sites 
Advisory Commission to study and rank the nation's Civil War Battlefields. Cedar 
I!reek was designated among the nation's top 50 most important Civil War sites. 
)ince that time, preservation activity at the battlefield has increased. The Hupp's Hill 
battlefield Museum, a private enterprise featuring segments of U.S. entrenchments, 
)pened in 1 992. Later that same year, the National Trust sponsored archaeological 
ligs on the battlefield. Several groups actively protected the site in 1 995 : the CCBF, 
vith fluids provided by the Summerlee Foundation in Dallas, began restoring the 
f eater House, a structure located on the site at the time of the battle; the ABPP 
)rovided funding for a wayside exhibit; the CCBF opened a visitor center and book 
;hop; the Virginia Commonwealth Transportation Board rejected a proposal for a 
bur-lane highway that would have bisected the battlefield; and the Civil War Trust 
idded the site to their Civil War Discovery Trail. In February 1 996, the CCBF board 
^oted to acquire an additional 3 .2 acre site adjacent to the protected battlefield land, 
rhe CCBF began renovating a building on that site for use as an interpretation center 
ind museum. That same year, the CCBF, with grants from APCWS and Civil War 
;ommemorative coin revenues awarded by The Civil War Trust, paid off the debt on 
ts 1 58 acres and placed the site under a perpetual conservation easement held by the 
/irginia Department of Historic Resources. 

Today 261 acres of this 6,273 acre battlefield — as determined by the Civil War 
>ites Advisory Commission in 1 993 — are protected. Civil War resources beyond the 
)oundaries of protected battlefield land include Union and Confederate earthworks, 
emnants of fords crossed by Confederate infantry, and several homes and sttiictures 
hat stood at the time of the battle. 

For more information about this site, contact the Cedar Creek Battlefield 
foundation. Inc., P.O. Box 229, Middletown, VA, 22645, (540) 869-1438. 

ViCKSBURG Campaign Trail 

The National Trust for Historic Preserva- 
tion has named the Vicksburg Campaign 
Trail one of the nation's Eleven Most 
Endangered Historic Sites. The Trust 
issues its Most Endangered list once a year 
to identtfy and call attention to extremely 
significant histonc properties that may be 
lost if immediate action is not taken to 
preserve them. 

Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 
Vicksburg campaign and siege of 1 863 
resulted in the defeat of Lt. Gen. John C. 
Pemberton's Confederate forces. Thus, the 
Union army achieved its first objective in 
the Western Theater-the capture of the 
bluffs at Vicksburg and control of the 
Mississippi River. Following the path taken 
by Grant, the Vicksburg Campaign Trail 
links battlefields at Port Gibson, Raymond, 
Jackson, Champion Hill, the Big black 
River Bndge, and Vicksburg in Mississippi, 
as well as East Carroll, Madison, and 
Tensas Parishes in Louisiana. 

The trail includes more than 40 
individual sites, about half of which are 
listed in the National Register of Historic 
Places, and a vanety of resources, including 
battlefields, buildings, cemeteries, historic 
roads, waterways, and fording places. 
Many of the sites associated with the 
campaign have been altered very little since 
the Civil War. These sites possess a rare 
degree of histoncal significance and 
integrity and offer an excellent opportunity 
for comprehensive preservation and 
interpretation. Today, however, many of 
these sites face immediate threats from 
timber operations, highway construction, 
casino development, and neglect. The 
Jackson battlefield, for example, has been 
lost to development, and two significant 
buildings, the Shaifer House in Claiborne 
County and the Coker House in Hinds 
County, are collapsing due to deterioration 
and erosion. 

The cnsis facing the Vicksburg 
Campaign Trail sites is severe enough that 
the National Trust for Historic Preservation, 

the nation's leading private preservation 
organization, added the trail sites to its 
1997 Most Endangered list. The Trust's 
Most Endangered list has been a powerful 
tool for raising public awareness about 
threatened sites and for rallying support to 
help save them. Richard Moe, the Trust's 
President, commented that "It would be a 
tragedy to lose the Vicksburg Campaign 
Trail. Nowhere else in this country do we 
have the chance to preserve the sites of an 
entire Civil War campaign. We must rally 
around the Vicksburg Campaign Trail and 
protect this pivotal, dramatic piece of 
American history for future generations." 

Georgia-Pacmc Awards 

Grant to Wilderness 


The National Parks and Conservation 
Association (NPCA) announced in April 
that the Friends of the Wilderness Battle- 
field would receive a donation of lumber 
and other building materials worth approxi- 
mately $ 1 2,000 from the Georgia-Pacific 
Corporation and the NPCA. The Friends 
will use the materials to repair or replace 
about 30 foot bridges throughout the 
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National 
Military Park that have deteriorated due to 
age, overuse, and flooding. Some park 
trails have had to be closed because 
bridges were unsafe. 

The donation is part of an ongoing 
program between Georgia-Pacific and 
NPCA to help National Park friends 
groups finance essential park-improvement 
projects. The Friends of Wilderness 
Battlefield is one of eight groups around the 
country that received cash grants, materials, 
or technical assistance this year. 

For more information about the 
NPCA/Georgia-Pacific grant program, 
please contact the NPCA at 1776 
Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 200, 
Washington, DC 20036 or (202) 223- 
6722. Story excerpted from FOWB 
Summer 1997 Newsletter. 

Fort Lamar Saved 

Fort Lamar, part of the Secessionville 
battlefield near Charleston, South Carolina, 
was dedicated as a state Heritage Trust site 
on Monday, June 16, 1997. Preservation 
of the endangered James Island site was 
accomplished through the cooperative 
efforts of the South Carolina Department of 
Natural Resources, volunteers, and two 
local property owners who donated 10.5 
acres of the 14 acre site. The fort itself, 
comprising three and a half acres, was 
purchased with $ 1 50,000 through the state 
Heritage Tmst program, which is primarily 
funded by a fraction of documentary stamp 
purchases required in real estate fransac- 

Local Civil War re-enactors and 
members of the Charleston-based South 
Carolina Battleground Preservation 
Trust spent hundreds of hours clearing 
underbrush and providing for public acces? 
around the fort, generally considered by 
historians as second only to Fort Sumter 
among significant Civil War sites in South 
Carolina. From its ramparts. Confederate 
defenders of Charleston beat back a 
superior force of Union troops on June 1 6, 

At the dedication. State Senator Glenn 
McConnell urged the 200 attendees to 
press for government assistance for the 
preservation of other historic sites. He 
quoted Abraham Lincoln: "A country with 
no respect for its past will have little worth 
remembering in the future." 

For more information about Fort 
Lamar, contact the SC Battleground 
Preservation Trust, P.O. Box 12441, 
James Island, SC 29412. Story origi- 
nally published in The Post and Courier 
(Charleston, SC) June 21, 1997. 

COIN GRANTS, from page 1 

Fredericksburg battlefield. Two acres of 
the new land was officially opened to the 
public on June 21,1 997. The remaining 
6.2 acres will open to the public within the 
next year. 

According to the United States Mint, 
sales of Civil War commemorative coins 
generated $5,909,649. Based on this 
figure and the total amount of approved 
expenditiires from 1 995- 1 997, the ABPP 
estimates that $ 1 ,658,205 in coin revenues 
remain for the acquisition of endangered 
battlefield lands. The Civil War Trust is 
expected to forward five additional 
applications for grants to the Department of 
the Interior in 1997. 


Numerous events are planned for the 1 35th 
anniversary of the Battle of Antietam, in 

Sharpsburg, Maryland. Antietam National 
Battlefield will present special tours on the 
weekend of September 13 and 14. That 
same weekend, the town will host its annual 
Sharpsburg Heritage Festival. The 
Festival includes free band concerts of Civil 
War music, living history demonstrations, 
plays, walking tours of the historic town, a 
craft fair, lectures, and more. All events are 
free and will be held at sfreet level or in 
handicapped-accessible buildings. 

At 6 pm on Wednesday, September 
1 7, an anniversary ceremony will be held 
on the battlefield near the Dunker Church. 
Afterwards, a special lectiore will start at 7 
pm in the park visitor center auditorium. 
There is no charge for this special program 
beyond the regular park entrance fee of $2 
per adult or $4 per family. 

For more information about the 
Sharpsburg Heritage Festival, call 
1 -800-2 28-STA Y. For park events 
information, call (301) 432-5124. 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
1849 C St, NW 
Washington, DC 20240 




PERMIT No. G-83 


Regulations of the U.S. Department of the Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted 
Programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, or disability Any person who believes he or she has been discriminated 
against in any program operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to; Director, Equal Opportunity Program, U.S. 
Department of the Interior, National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127. 


AUG 3 1997 



Fall 1997 


newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

U.S. Department of the Interior ^ National Park Service 4 Heritage Preservation Services 

Issue No. ( 

ABPP's 1998 Grants Cycle Begins 

The American Battlefield Protection Program's (ABPP) 1998 applications for 
battlefield preservation funding are now available. Monies will be awarded to those 
projects that lead directly to the preservation of battlefield lands. FY97 funding 
totaled $61 1,000; FY98 funding total is expected to be comparable. The average 
amount per grant in past years has been approximately $22,000. 

Funding is available for any battlefield site located on American soil. Prefer- 
ence will be given to those battlefields listed in the Civil War Sites Advisory Com- 
mission Report on the Nation 's Civil War Battlefields Priority I and Priority II 
lists. All other Civil War and other war (e.g., French and Indian War, Revolutionary 
War, War of 1812, Mexican American War, Indian Wars, Spanish American War, 
and World War II) battlefields are eligible for funding provided that: 1) the site is 
listed in the National Register of Historic Places; or 2) the grant application is 
accompanied by a letter from the State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) 
acknowledging the battlefield's probable eligibility for the National Register. 

Eligible applicants include units of federal, state, and local governments, Indian tribes, 
non-profit organizations, colleges, universities, and battlefield friends groups. The 
ABPP looks favorably upon projects involving multiple organizations. 

Samples of eligible projects include historical and archaeological surveys, historical 
research, National Register nominations, strategic and interpretive plans, related- 
lands studies, interpretation, training sessions, and workshops. Anyone considering a 
project that involves GIS/GPS technology may wish to discuss the development of 
their proposal with the National Park Service's Cultural Resources GIS staff at (202) 

Non-eligible projects include land acquisition, payment of rent on properties or land, 
fund-raising, lobbying, battle reenactments, new construction or reconstruction of 
historical resources, permanent staff positions, object or material culture curation, 
and capital construction or improvements. Projects on National Park Service-owned 
lands are not eligible. 

Applications have been distributed to all organizations, park sites, and government 
agencies currently on the ABPP mailing list. Other interested groups should contact 
Larry Hunter, Heritage Preservation Services Publications Coordinator, at (202) 343- 
9583 or to request an application. 

Completed applications must be received by December 31, 1997. Late 
ipplications will not be considered. If you have questions about the application or 
?rant process, contact Ginger Carter, ABPP Grants Manager, at (202) 343-1210. 

Senate Passes Battlefiele 
Acquisition Resolution 

On September 17, 1997, the Senate 
unanimously passed an amendment to 
the Department of Interior FY98 Appro 
priations bill introduced by Sen. James 
Jeffords (R-VT) and Sen. Robert 
Torricelli (D-NJ) to target funds for the 
acquisition of historic Civil War battle- 
field land. The amendment requests thi 
some of the additional $700 million 
requested by the President for the Land 
and Water Conservation Fund be used t 
acquire Civil War battlefield lands. 

In his remarks to the Senate, 
Torricelli noted that "Our amendment, 
through a sense of the Senate, will ask 
that the conferees use their best efforts 
to use funding available in the Land and 
[Water] Conservation Fund to immedi- 
ately make available, within [National] 
Park Service boundaries, funding to sav 
those lands still available." The amend- 
ment requests "less than 10% of the 
funding available to Congress this year 
out of the conservation funds." Asa 
"sense of the Senate" resolution, this 
amendment set no specific funding level 
for battlefield land acquisition. 

In 1993, the Civil War Sites Advisor 
Commission recommended that Con- 
gress "enact a Civil War Heritage 
Preservation law that supplements 
existing historic preservation and park 
land acquisition programs." The 
Jeffords-Tomcelli resolution is the first 
effort on the part of Congress to addres 
that recommendation. 

The entire appropriations bill is now 
in conference committee. 

ISTEA Extended 

1 October 1, 1997, Congress passed a 
II to extend the Intermodal Surface 
ansportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) 
1991 through March 3 1,1998. 

mds available from ISTEA have 
ovided more than $43 million for 
ttlefield land acquisition, site interpre- 
;ion, and other enhancements. Rep. 
id Shuster (R-9-PA), who introduced 

2 extension bill, remarked that "this 
tension is prudent and necessary. As 
i near the close of the First Session 
the 105th Congress, it seems that 
;re is simply no way to adequately 
dress the budget issues until early 

Members of Congress have, 


Published by the National Park Service 

Robert G. Stanton 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director, Cultural Resources 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 
Chief, Heritage Preservation Services 

H. Bryan Mitchell 

Acting Chief, American Battlefield 

Protection Program 

Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

\attlefield Update is published quarterly 

and is available free of charge. Send 
tides, news items, and correspondence to 
the Editor, Battlefield Update, National 
Park Service, Heritage Preservation Ser- 
vices, American Battlefield Protection 
'rogram, 1 849 C St, NW, Washington, DC 
3240; (202) 343-3449; FAX (202) 343-392 1 ; 

however, started working on new laws 
patterned after ISTEA. On September 
12, 1997, Sen. John Warner (R-VA) 
introduced the Intermodal Transpor- 
tation Act of 1997 (S. 1 173). This bill 
revises the Surface Transportation 
Program (STP), which required states 
to set aside 10% of program funds for 
transportation enhancement projects 
such as cultural resource and environ- 
mental preservation. Warner's new 
version of the STP decreases from 
1 0% to 8% the funds apportioned to 
the states for enhancement activities. 
The bill also requires that the matching 
share of STP grant funds must equal 
the federal share, although funds from 
other federal agencies may count 
toward the match. 

Currently, the House Transportation 
and Infrastructure Committee is work- 
ing on its revision of ISTEA, called the 
Building Efficient Surface Transpor- 
tation Equity Act of 1997 or 
BESTEA (H.R. 2400). BESTEA is 
expected to extend from FY98 to 
FY03. The current version of 
BESTEA does not substantially alter 
the level of funding for STP enhance- 
ment projects from the original 1991 
ISTEA legislation. 

Regional Trust To Buy 
Chancellorsville Land 

In early September 1997, the Central 
Virginia Battlefields Trust (CVBT) 
placed a $ 1 00,000 down-payment on 
1 00 acres in the heart of the 
Chancellorsville battlefield in Virginia. 
The tract lies along Route 3, a rapidly 
developing corridor in Spotsylvania 
County, and is contiguous with the 
eastern edge of the Fredericksburg and 
Spotsylvania National Military Park's 
Chancellorsville unit. The CVBT is 
considering donating the land to the 
park once the purchase is completed 
next spring. The tract does lie within 

the park's authorized boundary, but has 
been in private ownership. 

According to Noel Harrison, the 
park's Cultural Resources Manager, the 
tract was important throughout the 
battle. On May 1, 1863, the Union 
Army of the Potomac abandoned the 
ground as the Confederate Army of 
Northern Virginia moved west from 
Fredericksburg. The next day, Confed- 
erate feints across this area distracted 
the Union army from Lt. Gen. Thomas 
J. "Stonewall" Jackson's daring and 
ultimately successful flank attack. On 
May 3, Confederates attacked the 
Union center across this tract. 

The CVBT has until next March to 
raise an additional $350,000 in order to 
close the deal on the land. The group 
has emerged as a significant force in 
the Virginia battlefield preservation 
community. Last June, the CVBT 
contributed $20,000 to the purchase of 
8.2 acres on Marye's Heights at the 
Fredericksburg battlefield. 

For information about preserva- 
tion concerns at the Chancellorsville 
battlefield, please contact John 
Hennessy, Assistant Superintendent 
of the Fredericksburg and 
Spotsylvania NMP, at 120 Chatham 
Drive, Fredericksburg, VA 22405 or 
(540) 371-0802. 

Shenandoah Valley 
Commission Named 

Interior Secretary Bruce Babbit named 
19 members to the Shenandoah Valley 
Battlefields National Historic 
District Commission on September 
22, 1997. The charter for the Commis- 
sion signed by Babbit approves 1 7 
appointees nominated by Rep. Frank R. 
Wolf (R-IO-VA) and Sen. John Warner 
(R-VA), one member representing the 
Governor of Virginia, and one member 
representing the Director of the Na- 
tional Park Service. The commissioners 

nominated by Wolf and Warner include 
ten private property owners, five 
representatives of local governments, a 
Civil War historian, and a histonc 

Congress authorized the Historic 
District and Commission in November 
1996. Since then, the National Park 
Service has been coordinating efforts to 
establish the Commission, which will 
develop a plan for protecting and 
interpreting the historic, cultural, and 
natural resources associated with the 
Civil War battlefields and campaigns in 
the Valley. 

Commissioner Joseph W. A. 
Whitehome remarked that the Commis- 
sion will "provide a vision and 
coordinate a lot of disparate efforts" to 
preserve the battlefields in the Valley. 
"The feds [sic] are providing adminis- 
tration and guidance," but he said "it will 
be up to the locals to decide what to do 
with the properties themselves." 

Congress is currently working to 
provide funding for the project as part 
of the Department of the Interior FY98 
Appropriations bill. The House version 
requests $100,000. The Senate version 
proposes that funds should come from 
the $5 million expected to be appropri- 
ated for, and divided between, all 
National Heritage Areas. 

For more information about the 
project, contact Sandy Rives, 
Shenandoah National Park, (804) 
985-7293. (Article based on a story 
by Diane Hartson, Northern Virginia 
Daily, September 24, 1997). 


To all of our readers who took 
the time to reply to the ABPP 
Subscriber Survey, thank you! 

Your responses will help us 
serve you moi e efficiently and 

allow us to tailor Battlefield 
Update to your interests. 

Conservation Easement 
Legislation Passed 

On August 5, 1997, the President signed 
into law a modified version of The 
Taxpayer Relief Act (P.L. 105-34). 
Section 508 of that law provides an 
exclusion from the federal estate tax for 
land subject to a permanent conserva- 
tion easement. Originally introduced in 
Congress as The American Farm and 
Ranch Protection Act, Section 508 was 
designed to encourage landowners to 
protect agricultural and rural lands. This 
legislation presents significant opportuni- 
ties for the preservation of battlefield 
lands, but also has important limitations. 

Section 508 allows an estate's 
executor to exclude from a decedent's 
estate for federal estate tax purposes 
40% of the value of land subject to a 
conservation easement if the easement 
meets the following requirements: 

• the land covered by the easement is in 
or within a 25-mile radius of a Metro- 
politan Statisfical Area as defined by the 
Office of Management and Budget 
(typically an area with a population over 
50,000), a national park or national 
wilderness area designated as part of 
the National Wilderness Preservation 
System (although the Secretary of the 
Treasury may deny the exclusion for 
land within 25 miles of a national park or 
wilderness area if the Secretary can 
establish that the land is not under 
significant development pressure), or 10 
miles of a national urban forest (as 
designated by the USDA Forest Ser- 

• the easement is perpetual and has 
been donated, not sold; 

• the easement prohibits all but minimal 
commercial and recreational use on the 

• the easement is donated by the 
decedent or a member of the 
decedent's family; 

• the decedent or a member of the 
decedent's family owned the donated 
land for at least three years immedi- 
ately prior to the decedent's death; and, 
most importantly for owners of historic 
battlefield lands, 

• the easement meets the requirements 
of Section 170(h) of the Internal 
Revenue Code (IRC) of 1986 except 
that easements falling solely under 
clause (iv) of that Secfion, pertaining to 
historic structures and land areas, will 
not qualify. 

This last requirement disallows 
easements that provide only for historic 
preservation. However, if battlefield 
landowners choose to place easements 
on their lands to protect environmen- 
tally sensitive areas, open space, or 
scenic landscapes, such easements 
would qualify under this law. 

Several other points about the new 
law are noteworthy. The maximum 
amount which may be excluded under 
this provision is $500,000 per estate, 
phased in $ 1 00,000 per year incre- 
ments. Also, development rights 
retained in the easement will be taxed; 
however, heirs have nine months from 
the decedent's death to agree to 
eliminate some or all such retained 
development rights in exchange for a 
proportionate reduction in federal 
estate tax. 

Other legal conditions apply. 
Consult with your tax attorney for 
further details. 

Information for this article was 
provided by the Piedmont Environ- ' 
mental Council, Charlottesville, 

Revolutionary War and War of 1812 Preservation News 

The 105th Congress did not request funding for the Revolu- 
tionary War and War of 1 812 Historic Preservation Study 
in the Department of Interior FY98 Appropriations bill. 
The Study was authorized in November 1 996 without 
appropriations. ♦ 

A number of Revolutionary War historic preservation 
projects are under way in Pennsylvania. On September 1 1, 
1997, the First Lady of Pennsylvania, Michele M. Ridge, on 
behalf of the Governor, the General Assembly, and the 
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission 
(PHMC), formally declared the Brandywine Battlefield 
National Historic Landmark the first Commonwealth 
Treasure of Pennsylvania. The designation as a Common- 
wealth Treasure recognizes "extraordinary historic 
significance." According to the PHMC, "a Commonwealth 
Treasure may be a historic site, structure, artifact, or record 
with distinction to both the nation 
and the Commonwealth. Such 
selection elevates the importance of 
the Treasure to a priority for preser- 
vation and interpretation." The 
6,000- acre battlefield, which lies in 
the heart of the scenic Brandywine 
River Valley, is endangered by 
encroaching residential develop- 

During the press conference at the battlefield, Mrs. 
Ridge remarked that the designation reflected 
Pennsylvania's desire to make the battlefield a priority for 
tourism, the Commonwealth's second largest industry. She 
applauded the local media for its "communication efforts" 
on behalf of battlefi.eld preservation and emphasized the 
importance of preserving historic sites for the educational 
benefit to future generations of Pennsylvania's children. 
Numerous state legislators, Chester and Delaware County 
officials, and preservation organization representatives 
were on hand for the dedication ceremony. 

For more information about Commonwealth Trea- 
sures, please contact the Pennsylvania Historical and 
Museum Commission, P.O. Box 1026, Harrisburg, PA 
17108-1026 or (717) 787-3362. For battlefield 
preservation information, contact the Brandywine 
Conservancy, P.O. Box 141, Chadds Ford, PA 19317 or 
(610) 388-2700. '¥ 

Chester and Delaware 
Counties, PA 

Chester County, Pennsylvania, plans to launch an initia- 
tive to identify and document all of the county's 
Revolutionary War resources. Chester County is best 
known for its association with the British campaign for 
Philadelphia in 1 777, but it was also the site of the First 
Continental Powder Works and other war-related indus- 

County Historic Preservation Officer Jane Davidson 
will lead a force of roughly 300 volunteers to scour the 
county for remnants of Chester County's Revolutionary 
War past. The volunteers will record survey data using 
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission cultural 
resources inventory forms. Davidson hopes that Chester 
County's effort will serve as a pilot project for the larger, 
national inventory and evaluation process to take place 
once Congress appropriates funds for the Revolutionary 
War and War of 1 8 12 Historic Preservation Study. ♦ 

In April 1997, The Paoli Battle- 
field Preservation Fund, a non-profit 
group in Malvern, Pennsylvania, 
began a campaign to protect the site 
of the famed "Paoli Massacre." The 
40-acre core of the battlefield is 
currently owned by Malvern Prepa- 
ratory School, which has offered to 
sell the intact site to the Fund if the 
organization can raise $2.5 million by April 1 999. If the 
group cannot meet this deadline, the school will put the 
property on the open market. 

The Battle of Paoli took place in the early morning 
hours of September 2 1 , 1777. British troops commanded 
by Maj. Gen. Charles Grey surprised the camp of Conti- 
nental and militia forces under Brig. Gen. "Mad" Anthony 
Wayne and routed them. The night assault was made with 
bayonets and swords only, a tactic that ensured stealth and 
surprise but also left American casualties badly mutilated. 
Fifty-three American soldiers were killed, and the brutal 
defeat was quickly labeled a "massacre." The battlefield 
has been nominated to the National Register of Historic 

For additional information about preservation 
efforts at Paoli, contact Patrick McGuigan, Paoli 
Battlefield Preservation Fund, P.O. Box 437, One East 
First Avenue, Malvern, PA 19355.^ 

Battlefield Preservation Profile 
Perryvillf, Kentucky 

In the late Spring of 1 862, the Union Army of the Ohio began a slow and deliberate advance 
on Chattanooga, Tennessee. The glacial pace of the Federal column provided Confederate 
Gen. Braxton Bragg with the necessary time to move 35,000 men from Mississippi to the 
city's defense. From there Bragg planned to out-march the Union army and carry the war 
deep into Kentucky, a border state with divided loyalties to both the Union and the Con- 
federacy. The Confederates advanced north from Chattanooga toward Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, compelling the Army of the Ohio to move on a parallel track. The Union army arrived 
in Louisville first, and a Confederate attack on the city never materialized. On October 1, 
the Federal army of 55,000 men advanced from Louisville to engage the Confederates, who 
waited at the small crossroads village of Perryville. On October 8, the Federals attacked. 
After one day of battle, Bragg decided to retreat in the face of overwhehning Federal 
reinforcements and ordered a withdrawal from Kentucky within the week. As a result, 
Confederate influence in the crucial border state waned and Kentucky remained in Union 
control for the duration of the war. 

Preservation activity began in 1 90 1 when the Commonwealth of Kentucky acquired a 
small Confederate cemetery on the site and created the Perryville Battlefield Commission to 
maintain it. By 1928 the Commission had acquired 18 acres of the battlefield. The 
Commonwealth's preservation efforts continued; in 1936 it established the Perryville Battle- 
field State Historic Site, constructed a visitors center in 1965, and during the 1970s pro- 
tected an additional 81 acres. In 1966, the National Park Service (NPS) designated more 
than 2,500 acres a National Historic Landmark. 

The site was recognized by the Secretary of the Interior as one of 25 priority Civil War 
battlefields in the country in 1990. Within that year, local preservation efforts increased 
dramatically; the Kentucky Department of Transportation awarded an ISTEA grant of $2.5 
million to protect land and develop a new visitors center; the Commonwealth established 
the Perryville Enhancement Project (PEP) to locate funding sources to match ISTEA funds 
and negotiate land acquisitions; the Kentucky Heritage Council (KHC) and the American 
Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP) funded a resource protection plan; and local resi- 
dents established the Perryville Battlefield Protection Association, a non-profit friends 
group. In 1992, the Cultural Resources Geographic Information System office of the NPS 
surveyed and digitally mapped existing battlefield features. 

The 1993 Civil War Sites Advisory Commission Report designated Perryville one of 
the 50 most threatened Civil War battlefields in the country. That same year, the ABPP and 
the KHC provided two years of funding to implement a battlefield protection plan. In 1 994, 
the battlefield's National Historic Landmark designation was expanded to 7,000 acres and 
included the town of Perryville. The next year, the KHC funded an archaeological survey 
of the park, the PEP acquired 1 54 acres with ISTEA flinds and a match from The Conserva- 
tion Fund and the Kentucky Colonels, and The Civil War Trust (CWT) added the site to its 
Civil War Discovery Trail. 

More recently, the PEP acquired roughly 200 acres with ISTEA funds and match from 
the CWT, made possible through funds raised from the sale of Civil War commemorative 
coins, and from The Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites. The Town of 
Perryville has also agreed not to extend water or sewer lines into the battlefield. The PEP 
has transferred all acquired lands and conservation easements to the Commonwealth and 
continues to negotiate with property owners to protect battlefield land. 

Today nearly 450 acres of the 10,213-acre site (as determined by the Civil War Sites 
Advisory Commission) are protected. Unprotected areas of the site closely resemble their 
appearance atthe time of the Civil War, although today more land is cleared of vegetation. 
The conversion of farmland into residential subdivisions threatens to the site. 

To learn more about this site contact Mary Breeding, Perryville Enhancement Project, 
P.O. Box 65. Perryville, KY 40468. (606) 332-1862. 

Literature and 

A report on the June 1 997 strategy 
meetings on the Revolutionary War 
and War of 1812 Historic Preserv; 
tion Study will be available in early 
November 1997. The report will refl( 
the views of the meetings' participant 
concerning 1) the importance of the 
study; 2) the types of resources to b& 
considered in the study; 3) the study 
methodology; 4) the role of the study i 
promoting greater preservation of the 
sites involved; 5) the roles and respon 
bilities of a study advisory group; and 
6) the involvement of partners in the 
study. Please request copies from 
Hampton Tucker of the ABPP at (20! 
343-3580 or hampton_tucker(gnps.go 


The American Battlefield Protection 
Program is pleased to announce that 
plans are underway for its Fourth 
National Conference on Battlefleic 
Preservation, to be held in Septembe 
1998. The location and dates of the 
conference will be announced in the 
next issue of Battlefield Update. 
Suggestions regarding session 
topics, types of sessions, speakers, or 
battlefield tours are welcome. Organi 
zations interested in co-sponsoring the; 
conference or hosting special events 
should contact the ABPP as soon as 
possible. Please direct all comments 
and inquires about the conference to 
Hampton Tucker at (202) 343-3580 or 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
Washington, DC 20240 




PERMIT No. G-83 


Regulations of the U.S. Department of the Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted 
Programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, or disability. Any person who believes he or she has been 
discriminated against in any program operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to: Director, Equal 
Opportunity Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127. 


NOV 4 1997 


Winter 1998 


newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

U.S. Department of the Interior ♦ National Park Service ♦ Heritage Preservation Services 

Issue No. 68 

The Future of Mobile Bay 

In early November 1 997, the Blue and Gray Education Society (BGES) organized 
and led a conference in Orange Beach, Alabama, to examine heritage tourism 
issues and opportunities that face the sites associated with Mobile Bay's Civil War 
history. The conference, co-sponsored by the ABPP, brought together representa- 
tives of local military sites, state tourism offices, local preservation groups, 
consultants, and other interested organizations for two days of tours and focused 

Beginning with visits to Forts Morgan (ovmed and administered by the Alabama 
[Historical Commission), Gaines (owned and administrated by the Dauphin Island 
Parks & Recreation Board), and Blakeley (owned and administrated by the Historic 
Blakeley Authority), the attendees got a first-hand look at these beautiful but rapidly 
eroding sites. Attendees were asked to tour the forts as a typical visitor, yet to pay 
close attention to the condition of the structures and the surrounding areas. 

Everyone then gathered to discuss the physical state of the sites, and to develop 
deas about what can be done to assist these and other Civil War resources in the 
VIobile Bay area. Problems such as lack of funding, shortage of staff, poor inter- 

Inlerior view of Fori Gaines, with the anchor of the USS Hartford, the Federal jlagship 
during the Battle of Mobile Bay, at right foreground. Photo by Ed Besch. 

)retation, mcreasing development, and insufficient supportive resources (i.e., hotels, 
;ift shops, gas stations, etc.) topped the list of concerns expressed by the battlefield 
ite representatives. Of more immediate concern is the severe problem of struc- 
ural mortar erosion that exists at Forts Morgan and Gaines. This deterioration is 
lue mainly to the numerous hurricanes that have blasted the forts over the years. 
Mother severe stonii could do irreparable damage. 

UtJlVERSITY OF GE0RGl4'°" '""'^ management. Plenty of time 

Historic Charleston to 

Host Battlefield 
Preservation Conference 

The American Battlefield Protection 
Program is pleased to announce that the 
Fourth National Conference on 
Battielield Preservation will be held in 
historic downtown Charleston, South 
Carolina, from September 16-19, 1998. 
As in years past, we expect this confer- 
ence to attract battlefield site managers 
and staff, community planners, non-profit 
organizations, state and local government 
representatives, historians, and battlefield 
enthusiasts. We hope to see representa- 
tives from Civil War sites, but also 
battlefields associated with the Revolu- 
tionary War, the War of 1 8 1 2, Indian 
Wars, and other wars fought on Ameri- 
can soil. The preliminary program for 
the conference includes a day of work- 
shops, two days of general sessions, and 
one day of battlefield tours. We are 
presently working with the Charleston 
Visitors Center to arrange supplemental 
tours of the historic district and Low 
Country plantations. 

The Association for the Preservation 
of Civil War Sites (APCWS) will host a 
one-day pre-conference workshop on 
September 16. The workshop will 
provide participants with a "nuts and 
bolts" primer on battlefield land acquisi- 
tion strategies and techniques. Workshop 
topics will include real estate law, 
working with local governments, volun- 
teers, and landowners, and post-acquisi- 

See MOBILE BAY, page 2 

FEB 3 1998 

See CONFERENCE, page 2 

1 innAmire 

MOBILE BAY, from page 1 

After reviewing the concerns of all 
the attendees, the discussion moved on 
toproblem solving. The idea of uniting 
the region's various Civil War organiza- 
tions in order to market the larger 
Mobile Bay area as a heritage region, 
or to create an extended heritage trail, 
was agreed upon by all. This idea has 
been successfully implemented in other 
areas such as Vicksburg, Mississippi, 
and Tullahoma, Tennessee. 

As this was the first meeting of 
these organizations, much work lies 
ahead. The BGES is preparing a 
conference report, which will be 
available in February 1998 for a small 
fee to cover printing, shipping, and 


Published by the National Park Service 

Robert Stanton 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director, Cultural Resources 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 
Chief, Heritage Preservation Services 

H.Bryan Mitchell 

Acting Chief, American Battlefield 

Protection Program 

Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

quarterly and is available free of charge. 

Send articles, news items, and 
correspondence to the Editor, Battlefield 
Update, National Park Service, Heritage 

Preservation Services, American 

Battlefield Protection Program, 1 849 C 

Street, NW (NC330) Washington, DC 

20240; (202) 343-3449; FAX (202) 343- 


handling. For additional information 
about the conference, the report, and 
the Mobile Bay area Civil War heritage 
initiative, please contact Len Riedel, 
Executive Director, BGES, Box 129, 
Danville, VA 24543-0129, or (804) 

The Blue and Gray Education 

Society Announces 

1998 Seminar Schedule 

The Blue and Gray Education Society 
(BGES), the nation's only non-profit 
educational organization devoted to 
battlefield interpretation, is pleased to 
announce its 1998 Seminar and Tour 
Program. Beginning in early March 
and ending in early December, the 
BGES will sponsor educational 
programs in Dallas, Texas; Corinth, 
Mississippi; Athens, Ohio; 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; Harpers 
Ferry, West Virginia; Chattanooga, 
Tennessee; and Fredericksburg, 
Culpeper, Manassas, Richmond, and 
Lexington, Virginia. All proceeds 
from the 1 998 symposia and tours will 
benefit interpretation at Civil War 
sites in and around Mobile Bay, 

For informative brochures describing 
each event, write to BGES, Dept 
BGS, 416 Beck Street, Norfolk, VA 
23503, or call Executive Director Len 
Riedel at (804) 797-4535. 

CONFERENCE, from page 1 

will be given for individuals and small 
groups to meet with the presenters and 
deal with site-specific issues. 

Sessions on the first day (September 
17) of the conference will examine the 
tools used to define a battlefield. Tenta- 
tive sessions include ( 1 ) nominating 
battlefields to the National Register of 
Historic Places, (2) archaeological tools 
used to identify and evaluate battlefield 
land and resources, (3) the battlefield as 
part of the larger cultural landscape, and 
(4) documenting, evaluating, and manag- 
ing underwater sites associated with 
naval battles. The second day of 
conference sessions will explore the 
methods used by local governments and 
community organizations to incorporate 
this information into planning for long- 
range resource preservation, community 
development, and economic growth. 
Throughout the conference we will 
employ case studies to highlight friends 
groups and local governments that have 
used these techniques to save significant 
battlefield land. On September 1 7 and 
1 8, an exhibit room designated for 
battlefield friends groups, non-profit 
organizations, and consultants will be 
available for information and souvenir 

The final day of the conference will 
be dedicated to tours of Civil War and 
Revolutionary War battle sites in and 
around Charleston. Suggestions regard- 
ing session topics, types of sessions, 
speakers, or battlefield tours are wel- 
come. Organizations interested in 
hosting special events or reserving a 
space in the exhibit area should contact 
the ABPP as soon as possible. Infor- 
mation about accommodations will be 
posted in the next issue oi Battlefield 
Update. Please direct all comments 
and inquiries about the conference to 
Hampton Tucker at (202) 343-3580 or 

Open Letter from Gettysburg NMP 

The ABPP is aware of the intense national interest in letters, we have reproduced in full Gettysburg NMP Superin- 

Gettysburg National Military Park's decision to build a new tendent John Latschar 's letter to the Civil War community 
visitor complex for the park. In response to your calls and regarding the new visitor facility. 

December 3, 1997 

Members of the Civil War Preservation Community: 

This letter is about Gettysburg National Military Park's plans for a new National Park Service visitor center and museum. 
The recent selection of a development team to begin negotiations with the NPS with the goal of developing new Visitor 
Center and Museum facilities at Gettysburg National Military Park will allow the park to accomplish four long-term preser- 
vation goals. Those goals are: 

• Protect the park's collection of historic objects and archives. We need to provide NPS-standard, environmentally con- 
trolled space for the permanent protection and preservation of the park's world-famous collection of Civil War era artifacts 
and archives. The current facilities lack heat, air conditioning, humidity and dust control, and fire and intrusion protection. 

• Preserve the Cyclorama Painting. We must provide adequate facilities for the long-term preservation and display of the 
Cyclorama painting, "High Tide of the Confederacy." The current building housing this painting was inadequately designed 
and has structurally failed, exposing the painting to both structural stress and excess humidity. 

• Provide high quality interpretive and educational opportunities for visitors. We need to provide visitors with an understand- 
ing of the Gettysburg Campaign within the broad context of the causes and consequences of the Civil War, and its continuing 
legacy to the American people. The current visitor center structure makes this impossible. 

• Restore the High Water Mark of the battle. We need to restore the significant historic landscapes of the Union battle lines 
of the 2nd and 3rd days of the Battle of Gettysburg. The current visitor center and Cyclorama building were both con- 
structed on some of the most hallowed and blood-stained ground at Gettysburg NMP. We need to remove these buildings 
and re-sanctify the ground they are occupying, in order to honor the valor and sacrifices of those men who fought and died 
for their beliefs. 

For several years, specific requests to fix the problems in the current Visitor and Cyclorama Centers were not funded. 
These funding requests, competing against thousands of other worthy projects within the NPS's multi-billion dollar backlog 
of capital projects, never even made it onto the list of the top 200 construction priorities in the National Park Service. In 
January 1995 the NPS reached the decision that it was highly unlikely that appropriated funds could be obtained from 
Congress to resolve the current deficiencies in these park facilities, or to achieve the four park goals. Consequently, the 
Director of the NPS approved the concept of exploring a private-public partnership. 

In December 1996 the NPS released a formal "Request for Proposals for Visitor Center and Museum Facilities" (RFP) at 
Gettysburg NMP. A national NPS evaluation panel reviewed the six proposals received. The team of Kinsley Equities, in 
partnership with National Geographic Television, Destination Cinema, Gettysburg Tours, and John L. Adams & Company, 
was unanimously recommended by the evaluation panel as having presented the best overall proposal. 

The proposal was selected because it best satisfied all the criteria that the park had identified in the RFP. The summary 
reasons for the unanimous recommendation are: 

#1 - The proposal satisfies completely the park's four main preservation goals listed above. 

See LETTER, page 5 


. ..•..:;■.^V■.C^•:^ 
* si ■" ' ^ ■■ ■' % ■' ''■' ■ 

si' . ,y^ •■•■..•■.■■ ••..•.•■.■..-.^ ■^%\s^v:>^- 

G/5 Fievv of Union and Confederate Siegeworks (dark, heavy lines), 
near Petersburg, Virginia 1865 

Producing Battlefield Base Maps with GIS 

lie Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) Facility, the 
UBPP's sister branch within the National Park Service, is assisting Petersburg 
•National Battlefield and Pamplin Park Civil War Site in the development of a 
omputerized historic base map that will cover much of the area of the siege and 
•attles around Petersburg, Virginia. The base map is derived from a series of 
arge-scale maps that were surveyed and drawn in 1865 under the direction of Col. 
Nathaniel Michler, USA. CRGIS is computerizing eight map sheets, each sheet 
overing roughly 12.3 square miles. With five sheets completed, some interesting 
tatistics have begun to emerge. The main Federal siege line extended 13.8 miles 
rom the Appomattox River to Hatcher's Run. The corresponding Confederate 
ines ran for 1 1 .7 miles. The Federal armies constructed an additional 9.1 miles of 
arthworks to protect the rear of their camps. The length of all earthworks— 
latteries, trenches, picket lines, and covered ways— depicted on the five map sheets 
las reached 127.4 miles! More than 3,500 structures are shown on the maps, 
deluding a detailed study of downtown Petersburg. Land use information derived 
i^om the historic maps shows that the contending armies clear cut more than 4,400 
icres of woodlands during the siege. 

When completed in 1998, the base map will be used to locate, identify, inven- 
ory, and track the condition of Petersburg's surviving historic resources. Peters- 
»urg National Battlefield will incorporate the map information into its revised 
jeneral Management Plan. Pamplin Park Civil War Site will use the base map for 
;arthworks management and interpretation. Both parks will rely on the historic 
>ase map to advocate for resource protection and preservation. For more informa- 
ion about this project, contact David Lowe, CRGIS, at (202) 343-1034 or 

Palmito Ranch Gains 
Landmark Status 

The Palmito Ranch battlefield in 
Cameron County, Texas, best known as 
the site of the final major land 
engagement of the Civil War, was 
designated a National Historic 
Landmark (NHL) by the Secretary of 
the Interior on September 25, 1997. 
The designation did not, however, stem 
from the site's military significance. 
Instead, NHL status was awarded 
because the battlefield represents the 
economic and diplomatic importance of 
the Lower Rio Grande Valley to both 
the Confederacy and the Union. 

According to the NHL nomination, 
"while the Battle of Palmito Ranch did 
nothing to affect the outcome of the 
war, it is representative of the war-long 
struggle between the North and South 
to control southern ports and manipulate 
foreign diplomacy for economic and 
military advantage." During the war, 
the Lower Rio Grande Valley was an 
outlet for Southern cotton exports and a 
draw for international weapons imports. 
"The army that possessed the Rio 
Grande Valley confrolled a key link in 
the Confederacy's economic lifeline, 
particularly in the waning years of the 
war when the Union naval blockades 
effectively closed other Southern ports." 
In 1993, the Civil War Sites Advisory 
Commission identified Palmito Ranch as 
a prominent site associated with the 
"Intemational Interpretive Theme" of 
the Civil War. 

National Historic Landmarks are 
nationally significant places that "pos- 
sess exceptional value or quality in 
illustrating and interpreting the heritage 
of the United States." While encour- 
aged to do so, owners of NHLs are 
under no obligation to protect or pre- 
serve their Landmark. For more 
information, please write to the National 
Park Service, National Historic Land- 
marks Survey, 1 849 C Street, NW 
(NC400) Washington, DC 20240. 

LETTER, from page 3 

#2 - The proposal provides an excellent site for the new facilities, on privately- 
owned land inside the park boundary. This site will: 

• Have no impact upon significant historic resources, including important 
viewsheds. The site lies in an area that was behind the Union battle lines. It lies 
between the Union positions on Cemetery Ridge and Gulp's Hill, and was only 
used by the Army of the Potomac for occasional troop movements. There 
were no battle lines upon this land, no fighting took place there, and no blood 
was spilled there. 

• Provide easy access for park visitors to prime interpretive areas of the park, 
such as the High Water Mark and the National Cemetery. 

• Ensure that all new facilities will be screened completely, and will not be 
visible from anywhere on the Union battle lines at Cemetery Hill, Cemetery 
Ridge, or Little Round Top. 

• Have little, if any, impact upon current traffic patterns and few, if any, im- 
pacts upon local business activities and patterns. 

#3 - Both the land and new Visitor Center/Museum complex will be donated to 
the NPS at the end of the proposed cooperative agreement period (25-30 years). 

#4 - An appropriate range of related facilities was proposed, to provide service 
for visitors, including a large format film, museum exhibits, a gift shop and 
bookstore, and food services. Our public planning process will determine which 
of these are appropriate to include in the completed project. The scope of the 
facilities to be approved, however, will be very similar to those found in other 
leading museums, such as the Smithsonian. 

The selection of a proposal is a significant step in a long process, which is far 
from over. The NPS will enter into negotiations with the development team, 
who will establish a new non-profit corporation to be formed by Kinsley Equi- 
ties. At the same time, the major components of this proposal, along with any 
potential environmental and/or socio-economic impacts will be presented to the 
public for review. Even if the negotiations with the development team are 
successful, the NPS will not enter into an agreement with the development 
team until the public review is complete. We anticipate this process to take 
approximately 8 months. 

If you wish to be added to the mailing list to receive more information about the 
planned project, contact Gettysburg National Military Park, 97 Taneytown Road, 
Gettysburg, PA 17325, telephone (717) 334-1124, ext. 452. 


Dr. John A. Latschar 


Gettysburg National Military Park 

Harsh Penalties for 
Battlefield Looters 

Last spring, National Park Service 
authorities caught two camouflage-clad 
men hunting for artifacts on the Peters- 
burg National Battlefield. An investiga- 
tion of the pair's activities led to the 
recovery of more than 2,000 Civil War 
artifacts valued at $4,500. The incident 
represented the largest Civil War-related 
Archaeological Resources Protection 
Act (ARPA) violation on record. 

On October 9th, 1997, the defen- 
dants, Jeffery Blevins and John Walker, 
were sentenced in federal district court 
following their guilty pleas on charges of 
felony conspiracy to violate ARPA. 
Blevins was sentenced to five months in 
prison and Walker to four months. Upon 
release, each will undergo a year's 
supervised probation, including a term of 
home incarceration equivalent to their jail 
time, at their own expense. Each 
defendant was ordered to pay restitution 
of $25,467.08 to the Department of the 
Interior for destroying the archaeological 
record. In handing down his sentence, 
the judge expressed the hope that Civil 
War "buffs who have a craving for 
artifacts will be tempered in the future." 

Calculating Loss at Looted Sites 

How do you put a dollar amount on the 
loss caused by archaeological looting? 
According to ARPA regulations (43 CFR 
7.14), value is appraised in terms of the 
expected cost of retrieving scientific 
information from the site had it not been 
violated. This includes the cost of 
preparing a research design, conducting 
field work, laboratory analysis, and 
preparing reports. In addition, the cost of 
restoration and repair (site stabilization and 
curation of artifacts) can also be used to 
calculate the loss caused by looters. Fair 
market value is used to calculate commercial 
worth of artifacts. 

—Common Ground, v. 2 no. 3/4 

Honey Springs, Oklahoma Battlefield Preservation Profile 


At the outbreak of the Civil War, what is today Oklahoma was known as Indian Territory. Disagreement over a number of issues, 
including slavery, created a volatile situation in which some American Indians living in this area supported the Confederacy, and others 
the Union. In April 1 863, Union troops occupied Fort Gibson, 20 miles north of Honey Springs. The Federals planned to use the fort as 
a base from which they could strengthen their control of the territory. Confederate Brig. Gen. Douglas H. Cooper and 6,000 troops, the 
majority American Indians, responded by skirmishing with the Union troops and attacking supply trains. The Union commander in the 
area, Maj . Gen. James G. Blunt, surmised that the Confederates were about to advance on Fort Gibson. He decided to attack them before 
they were reinforced by a Confederate brigade on route from Arkansas. By midnight on July 1 6, Blunt's 3,000 troops — whites, American 
Indians, and the First Kansas Colored Infantry — were marching south toward the Confederate encampment at Honey Springs. The next 
morning the two forces skirmished and by late morning began full-scale fighting. Cooper was forced to retreat east that afternoon. This 
battle was the largest engagement of the Civil War where the majority of Union and Confederate troops were Native American. This 
Union victory established Federal control of the Indian Territory north of the Arkansas River. 

Preservation Activity 

1959 The National Park Service's National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings identifies Honey Springs as a Civil War site that 
possesses "more than ordinary interest." 

1960s The Muskogee County Chamber of Commerce invites local residents and statewide representatives to discuss the develop- 
ment of the Honey Springs battle site as a national park; the Civil War in Indian Territory becomes the theme of the Oklahoma 
Department of Highways' "1963 Official Highway Map;" the Oklahoma Civil War Centennial Commission resolves to acquire 
battlefield land and establish a National Battlefield Park; the Oklahoma City Civil War Roundtable, the Indian Territory Posse of 
Oklahoma Westerners, and the Great Plains Historical Association request the State to purchase the battlefield and establish a 
park; the Oklahoma Legislature appropriates $25,000 to purchase battlefield land; the Oklahoma Historical Society (OHS) 
estabhshes the Honey Springs Battlefield Commission; the state legislature provides funding for the OHS to acquire up to 2,993 
acres for a state park. 

1967-81 Annual appropriations from the Oklahoma Legislature to the OHS result in the acquisition of approximately 550 acres. 

1970 2,993 acres of the battlefield are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. 

1986 Controversy over land acquisition compels the State legislature to abolish the Honey Springs Battlefield Commission. 

1990-93 The Secretary of the Interior establishes the American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP); Congress and the Secretary 
appoint the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission (CWSAC) to study and rank the nation's Civil War battlefields; OHS 
completes the Battlefield Protection Study: Honey Springs Battlefield Park, Oklahoma, with assistance from the ABPP; the 
ABPP provides OHS with funds to appraise land identified in the Battlefield Protection Study. 

1993 OHS receives a Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) grant and a match from the Oklahoma Department of 
Transportation to construct an interpretive center, build trails, and acquire a portion of the battlefield. 

1994 The ABPP provides funds for the Center for Advanced Spatial Technology (CAST) at the University of Arkansas to conduct 
a viewshed study and develop a general management plan for the battlefield; the ABPP provides funds for OHS to begin an 
archeological reconnaissance survey of the battlefield. 

1995 The ABPP provides funds for OHS to begin Phase II of the archeological survey; OHS receives $780,000 in ISTEA funds and 
a state match of $200,000 to protect additional land, and begins negotiations to protect 350 acres. 

1996 CAST holds public meetings to discuss preservation altematives of the battlefield; The Civil War Trust adds the site to its Civil 
War Discovery Trail. 

1997 OHS acquires 300 acres with ISTEA funds and continues to negotiate additional land acquisitions with private landowners; 
OHS begins to implement the park's general management plan by designing a visitors center and access roads. 

Today 957 acres of this 4,726-acre* battlefield are protected. (""Study area of the battlefield as defined by the CWSAC.) 

To learn more about this site contact: Ralph Jones, Division of Historic Sites, Oklahoma Historical Society, 2 1 00 North Lincoln 
Boulevard, Oklahoma City, OK 73 105, (405) 522-5234, 

Literature and 

Three new ABPP-assisted battlefield 
preservation publications were com- 
pleted this fall. The first report is 
Historic Resources Along the 
Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers 
(September 1997), which identifies 
cultural sites associated with pre-historic 
activity, the Colonial period, the Revolu- 
tionary War, industrial activity, and the 
Civil War along the two Virginia rivers. 
A team of planners and historians with 
the City of Fredericksburg and the 
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Na- 
tional Military Park researched the 
history of each site, verified site loca- 
tions through field work, and wrote the 
158-page report. The result is a thor- 
ough and comprehensive inventory of 
more than 50 sites. The report provides 
general context statements and indi- 
vidual historical summaries for the sites, 
includes 50 topographic maps and 10 
illustrations, and makes recommenda- 
tions for site preservation and 
management. For more information 
about Historic Resources Along the 
Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers, 
contact Erik F. Nelson, Senior Planner, 
City of Fredericksburg, (540) 372-1 179. 

The second publication is the 
Preservation Plan for the Ringgold 
Gap, GA, Battlefield (October 1997), 
which was prepared by consultant Keith 
S. Bohannon for the ABPP and the 
Catoosa County Historical Society. The 
86-page plan delivers an extensive 
history of the battle, reviews local land 
use and land-use laws, and recommends 
a phased preservation and interpretation 
plan for the core and study areas of the 
battlefield. To request copies of the 
plan, please write to the Catoosa County 
Historical Society, P.O. Box 8, Ringgold, 
GA 30736. 

The final ABlP-funded project 
completed in 1997 is the Honey Springs 
Battlefield Park 1997 Master Plan 

Report (December 1 997), prepared for 
the Oklahoma Historical Society by 
The Center for Advanced Spatial 
Technologies (CAST) at the Univer- 
sity of Arkansas. This concise, 
readable report addresses preservation 
issues for the 2,997-acre battlefield, but 
focuses primarily on park development 
and interpretation for the 957 acres 
owned by the State of Oklahoma (the 
Oklahoma Historical Society completed 
a battlefield protection study in 1 99 1 ). 
CAST does an excellent job of identify- 
ing and proposing preservation 
strategies for viewsheds, a task greatly 
facilitated by the use of Geographic 
Information Systems. 

Check out the Honey Springs 
Battlefield Park 1997 Master Plan 
Report on-line at 
cast/proj ects/historic/honeyspring/ 
(Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0 is needed 
to view the file). 

Preservation Easements 
Information Available 

A new brochure entitled "Historic 
Preservation Easements: A Historic 
Preservation Tool with Federal Tax 
Benefits" is now available from the 
National Park Service. The brochure 
discusses the social and financial 
benefits of donating historic 
preservation easements, what types of 
properties qualify for preservation 
easements, easement restrictions, tips 
for property owners, and sources of 
additional information. 

To request a free copy, contact Larry 
Hunter, Publications Coordinator, 
Heritage Preservation Services, National 
Park Service, 1849 C Street, NW 
(NC330) Washington, DC 20240 or 

Gray & Pape, Inc., recently published a new preservation, management, and 
interpretation plan for the Civil War resources associated with the Battles of i 

Rowlett's Station, Woodsonville, and Munfordville in western Kentucky. Spon- 
sored by the Hart County Historical Society and funded by the Kentucky Heritage' 
Council, The Battles for the Bridge: A Civil War Resources Preservation Plan, 
Hart County Kentucky (September 1 997) is an excellent study in community 
consensus planning. The consultants held numerous public meetings and con- 
ducted private interviews to determine the sentiments of battlefield landowners 
and other local citizens regarding the preservation, interpretation, and marketing of; 
the battlefields. The innovative ideas and concerns of people who attended the , 
meetings and interviews are well represented in the plan. : 

The 1 70-page plan includes 54 illustrations, including color maps indicating ^ 

troop movements | 
and color photo- 
graphs of individual 
resources. For - 
copies, contact the I 
Hart County 
Historical Society, i 
109 Main Street, \ 
Munfordville, KY 

Munfordville battlefield^ 
with L&N Railroad i 
bridge crossing the j 
Green River in distance 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
1849 C Street, NW (NC330) 
Washington, DC 20240 




PERMIT No. G-83 



ook must not be 

A, *he Library 

jut special 

.'0 T 


Regulations of the U.S. Departmi . irtcnor sCi^tly proliibi lawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted 

Programs on the basis of race, Cf ' ' .i:onal ongui, age, or disabiiiiy. Any person who believes he or she has been 
discriminated against m any pre ■ ppenite^. 'y a recipient of Federal assistance should write to: Director, Equal 
Opportunity Program, U.S. Dep ncut of the Interior, National Park Service, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240. 

Spring 1998 


newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

U.S. Department of the Interior ♦ National Park Service ♦ Heritage Preservation Services 

Issue No. 69 

1998 Battlefield Preservation Projects Selected 

The American Battlefield Protection Program thanks everyone who applied for 
1998 project funding. This year's competition was open to projects at battlefields 
associated with all wars and battles fought on American soil. As in the past, 
however, projects addressing sites listed on the Civil War Sites Advisory 
Commission's Priority I and II lists took precedence. 

The ABPP received 63 applications for eligible projects. The review panel of 
ten historians and preservation planners recommended funding 20 projects that 
exemplify strong battlefield land preservation strategies. Reviewers based their 
selections on seven criteria: 1) significance of the site; 2) level of threat to the 
battlefield; 3) battlefield land preservation opportunity; 4) clear project objec- 
tives, tasks, and schedule; 5) community support and participation in the project; 
6) qualifications of the applicant; and 7) clear and justified project budget. 

National Park Service Director Robert Stanton approved the list of projects on 
March 2, 1998. Of the 20 projects selected for funding, twelve pertain to Civil 
War battlefields, three are at Revolutionary War sites, and four focus on Indian 
Wars battle sites. One project impacts both Civil War and Revolutionary War 
sites. 1998 ABPP competitive project funding totaled $532,000. 

The selected projects for 1998 are below. For additional information about 
ndividual projects, please contact the person listed with the project. 

City of Peekskill - New York - $39,400 - Revolutionary War 

rhe City of Peekskill will idenfify and collect all relevant documentary and 
;artographic historical data about, and conduct an archaeological survey of, the 
^ort Hill site in order to determine areas of significant historic resources. 
lachel Hyman, Planner, 840 Main Street, Peekskill, NY 10566, 
914) 737-3400. 

:ounty of Dinwiddie - Virginia - $7,300 - Civil War 

Tie County of Dinwiddie will use ABPP grant funds to work with its citizens to 
lentify and gain support for the development of hiking and biking trails that will 
onnect the battlefields of the Petersburg Campaign. 

. {arch Altman, Senior Planner, County of Dinwiddie, Planning Department, 

. \0. Box 266, Dinwiddie, VA 23841, (804) 469-4500. 

See 1998 PROJECTS, page 4 


APR 2 2 lb98 

Coin Funds Support Brandy 
Station Purchase 

On February 19, 1998, the Secretary of the 
Interior approved The Civil War Trust's 
proposal to award $500,000 in Civil War 
commemorative coin revenues to the 
Association for the Preservation of Civil 
War Sites (APCWS). APCWS will use the 
funds to assist in the purchase of battlefield 
land at Brandy Station, m Culpeper County, 
Virginia. After almost ten years of bitter 
disputes between preservationists and 
developers, APCWS has successfully 
financed the acquisition of 571 acres of 
core battlefield land at Brandy Station. 
APCWS plans to place the entire acquisi- 
tion under a perpetual conservation 
easement, protecting the site from future 
development. Past development plans for 
the site included a Formula 1 racetrack and 
a large industrial park located at the heart 
of the battlefield. 

The Battle of Brandy Station began at 
dawn on June 9, 1863, when Union cavalry 
commanded by Gen. Alfred Pleasonton 
launched a surprise attack on Gen. J.E.B. 
Stuart's Confederate horsemen at Brandy 
Station. It was the largest cavalry engage- 
ment ever fought in North America and 
was the opening engagement of the 
Gettysburg Campaign. In June 1993, the 
National Trust for Historic Preservation 
included Brandy Station battlefield on its list 
of the eleven Most Endangered Historic 
Places in America. 

In March 1997, APCWS purchased in 
excess of 1,500 acres of land at Brandy 
Station. The organization then sold roughly 


Carolina Group to 

Preserve Revolutionary 

War History 

TheCarolinas' Backcountry Alliance 
recently formed to identify, preserve, 
and promote significant sites associated 
with the Southem Campaign of the 
Revolutionary War in western North 
and South Carolina. 

The first objective of the new group 
is to develop a Revolutionary War 
"trail" that will link the Carolinas' back 
country sites. Three National Parks— 
Cowpens National Battlefield and Kings 
Mountain National Military Park in 

South Carolina, and Guilford Courthouse 
National Military Park in North 
Carolina—are working with the Alliance. 
A variety of other sites—including 
Historic Camden, Brattonsville, and 
Landsford Canal State Park in South 
Carolina, and the Hezekiah Alexander 
Homesite, Old Salem, and Historic 
Hillsborough in North Carolina-have 
also joined the trail initiative. The 
Alliance has found enthusiastic support 
fi^om the South Carolina Parks, 
Recreation and Tourism Commission 
and the North Carolina Department of 
Commerce, Travel and Tourism Division 
for producing a new full-color brochure 
about the trail. 

Another Alliance goal is to work 

with the American Battlefield Protection 
Program and the North and South 
Carolina Historic Preservation Offices 
to identify and assess Revolutionary 
War resources in the Carolinas' western 
regions. Preliminary work on this 
regional survey should be underway by 
June 1998. 

For more information about the 
Carolinas' Backcountry Alliance, 
contact the group's Chairperson, 
Jayne Scarborough, Executive 
Director, Olde English District 
Commission, in South Carolina at 
(803) 385-6800, or Vice Chair Bob 
Vogel, Superintendent, Guilford 
Courthouse NMP, in North Carolina 
at (336) 288-1776. 


Published by the National Park Service 

Robert Stanton 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director, Cultural Resources 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 
Chief, Heritage Preservation Services 

H. Bryan Mitchell 

Chief. American Battlefield 

Protection Program 

Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

Battlefield Update is published quarterly 

and is available free of charge. Send 
articles, news items, and correspondence to 
the Editor, Battlefield Update, National 
Park Service, Heritage Preservation Ser- 
vices, American Battlefield Protection 
Program, 1 849 C Street, NW, (NC330) 
Washington, DC 20240; (202) 343-3449; 
FAX (202) 343-3921; 

Preservation Partnerships 

In addition to the 1 998 competitive battlefield preservation projects (see story on 
page 1), the ABPP has entered into cooperative agreements with two of the 
nation's leading Civil War preservation organizations, the Association for the 
Preservation of Civil War Sites (APCWS) and The Civil War Trust (CWT). The 
cooperative partnerships will result in three exciting projects this year. 

APCWS and the ABPP are working to establish a quad-state Civil War heritage 
trail. The project, in large part based upon Virginia's successful Civil War Trails 
initiative, will promote and interpret battlefields associated with military campaigns- 
-such as the Maryland Campaign of 1862 and the Gettysburg Campaign of 
1 863— that unfolded across Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, 
hiitial meetings are being planned to establish a commission to oversee the initiative. 
Project budget: $28,000. Contact Jeff Driscoll, Director of Education, APCWS, 
at (301) 665-1400 forniore information. 

This year The Civil War Trust and the ABPP will work on two cooperative 
projects. The first is a national battlefield preservation electronic list serve (an 
e-mail discussion group) for stewards of historic battlefields. The list serve will 
be moderated and discussion topics will include battlefield preservation, 
interpretation, and management issues. Project budget: $6,500. The second 
project involves sponsoring charettes (intensive meetings) at two Civil War Sites 
Advisory Commission Priority I or II sites needing focused attention from the 
battlefield preservation community. The Civil War Tiiist and the ABPP will work 
with local officials, preservation advocates, and battlefield landowners and 
neighbors during the meetings. Project budget: $30,000. For additional information 
about these cooperative projects, contact Elliot Gruber, Executive Director, CWT, 
at (703) 516-4944. 

ISTEA Reauthorization News 

BRANDY STATION, from page 1 

Congress is currently working to reauthorize or reinvent the 
Litermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1 99 1 
(ISTEA) by May 1 , 1998. Congress is underpressure from 
governors, businesses, and labor groups to complete action 
quickly to avert delays in billions of dollars worth of planned 
highway and bridge construction projects. On March 12, 
the Senate passed ISTEA 2 (S. 1 1 73), a $2 1 4 billion bill. 
As this newsletter goes to press, the House is still debating 
its revised ISTEA bill, known as BESTEA (H.R. 2400). 

Issues in both reauthorization bills may affect battlefield 
preservation. These issues include 1 ) whether to maintain 
existing flinding levels for transportation enhancement 
projects; 2) whether to keep historic preservation as an 
enhancement category; and 3) whether to allow state 
Departments of Transportation to place restrictions on 
enhancements or to opt out of the enhancement requirement 
altogether. ISTEA 2, as passed by the Senate, reduces 
from 1 to 8 percent the amount of fijnds apportioned to a 
state for fransportation enhancement activities. It appears, 
however, that the Senate did retain the mandatory require- 
ment for states to use those frmds for only enhancement 
activities and that the Senate retained historic preservation as 
a valid enhancement activity under ISTEA 2. 

The surface transportation enhancements provision in 
ISTEA was designed to sfrengthen the cultural, aesthetic, 
and environmental aspects of the nation's transportation 
system. More than 50 Civil War projects in 12 states have 
benefited from fransportation enhancement frinding since 
ISTEA was enacted. These projects represent $23.6 
milUon in Federal ISTEA frmds combined with $20.2 milUon 
in matching fiands for a total expenditure of $43.8 million to 
preserve and interpret Civil War battlefields and sites. 

ISTEA has been the largest source of fionding for Civil 
War preservation projects to date. Enhancement ftinds have 
been used to purchase easements on the Antietam battle- 
field; construct more than 20 miles of interpretive frails at 
Corinth, Mississippi; develop the Vfrginia Civil War Trails 
program; and preserve land at Perryville, Mill Springs, and 
Camp Nelson in Kentucky. 

Information for this article was provided by The 
Civil War Trust. 

929 acres—some to a sympathetic neighboring landowner and 
some with conservation easements in place. APCWS 
retained 571 acres. The initial purchase was financed by the 
seller of the property. The Industrial Development Authority 
of the Town of Culpeper then issued industrial revenue bonds 
totaling $5.45 million to help APCWS refinance the purchase 
at a much lower mterest rate. This was the first time ever 
that industrial revenue bonds have been used to benefit 

Rural vista of Brandy Station battlefield. 

battlefield preservation. The $500,000 of commemorafive 
coin revenues will help reduce APCWS's debt to the town. 
NationsBank Corporation has extended a letter of credit to 
APCWS that will guarantee timely repayment of the remain- 
ing principal of $4.95 million to the town. APCWS will 
embark on unprecedented fund raising efforts over the next 
ten years to repay NationsBank. 

Once all debt is paid, APCWS will place a permanent 
conservation easement on the land to guarantee its protection. 
Until that time, the commemorative com monies act as a non- 
interest bearing loan that The Civil War Trust will forgive 
once the easement is in place. 

The protecfion of any land at the Brandy Stafion battle- 
field is a triumph for battlefield preservationists nationwide. 
The complex financial structure of this acquisition illustrates 
that successful partnerships can be forged between the Civil 
War and historic preservation communities and local govern- 
ments and financial institutions. The American Battlefield 
Protection Program commends APCWS, the Town of 
Culpeper, NationsBank, and The Civil War Trust for their 
determination to preserve this vital piece of American history, 
as well as for introducing exciting and creative land acquisi- 
tion strategies to the field of battlefield preservation. 

1998 PROJECTS, from page 1 

Fallen Timbers Battlefield Preservation Commission - 
Ohio - $10,000 - Indian Wars 

The Fallen Timbers Battlefield Preservation Commission will 
produce an educational video for the community that clearly 
relays the importance of the Battle of Fallen Timbers and 
explains how the increased threat of commercial develop- 
ment may adversely impact the historic battlefield. 
Marianne Britt Duvendack, Board Member, Fallen 
Timbers Batdefield Preservation Commission, P. O. Box 
8771, Toledo, OH 43623, (419) 875-5155. 

Fort Recovery Historical Society - Ohio - $19,000 - 
Indian Wars 

The Fort Recovery Historical Society's objectives are to 
gather and organize new information on Fort Recovery and 
complete an archaeological survey of several previously 
undocumented portions of the battle site. 
Barbara Meiring, Executive Director, Fort Recovery 
Historical Society, P.O. Box 533, Fort Recovery, OH 
45846, (800) 283-8920. 

Frederick County Department of Planning and 
Development - Virginia - $25,000 - Civil War 

Frederick County will produce a Third Winchester preserva- 
tion plan that will help protect a "critical mass" of the 
fragmented and threatened battlefield. Also, Frederick 
County will work with the Shenandoah Valley Battlefields 
National Historic District Commission to ensure that the plan 
complements the Commission's work. 
Kris C. Tierney, Director, Frederick County Department 
of Planning and Development, 107 North Street, 
Winchester, VA 22601, (540) 665-5651. 

Friends of the Texas Historical Commission, Inc. - 
Texas - $28,600 - Indian Wars 

The Friends of the Texas Historical Commission, Inc.'s 
project involves surveying six sites in the Texas Panhandle 
where the U.S. military battled with Native Americans during 
the 1874 Red River Campaign. These sites include Adobe 
Walls, the Miles Fight, Lyman Wagon Train, Buffalo Wallow, 
Palo Duro Canyon, and the Baldwin Fight. 
J. Brett Cruse, Staff Archaeologist, Office of the State 
Archaeologist, Texas Historical Commission, P.O. Box 
12276, Austin, TX 78711, (512) 463-8883. 

Friends of the Vicksburg Campaign and Historic 
Trail, Inc. - Mississippi - $25,000 - Civil War 

The Friends of Vicksburg Campaign and Historic Trail, Inc. 

will use ABPP grant funding to create a strategic plan. The 
plan will guide the Friends-in partnership with other private 
non-profits and public agencies— in their efforts to preserve, 
develop, market, and manage the trail corridor, which includes 
the Vicksburg, Port Gibson, Raymond, Champion Hill, and 
Big Black River Bridge battlefields. 
Michael F. Beard, Grants Administrator, Friends of 
Vicksburg Campaign and Historic Trail, Inc., 4941 
Cottonwood Lane, Jackson, MS 39212, (601) 372-8007. 

Frontier Heritage Alliance - Wyoming/Montana - 
$21,600 -Indian Wars 

The Frontier Heritage Alliance will amass historical informa- 
tion concerning the battlefields of General George Crook's 
1876 campaigns against the Cheyenne and Sioux. The FHA 
will use this information to raise public awareness about the 
battles and the current conditions of the battle sites, and to 
assist in the preparation of a cultural resources management 
plan for the Rosebud Battlefield State Park m Montana. 
John D. McDermott, Frontier Heritage Alliance, 1004 Big 
Goose Road, Sheridan, WY 82801, (307) 674-4954. 

Hanover County - Virginia - $15,000 - Civil War 

Hanover County's project will result in the development of 
local protection strategies for Cold Harbor, Gaines Mill, North 
Anna, and Totopotomy battlefields. Strategies include adding 
battlefield preservation components to the County's Compre- 
hensive Plan and to its Zoning and Subdivision Ordinance. 
Greg Baka, Planner, Hanover County, P.O. Box 470, 
Hanover, VA 23069, (804) 537-6005. 

Hart County Historical Society - Kentucky - $20,000 - 
Civil War 

Hart County will contract with a professional consultant to 
prepare an interpretive plan for the Battle of Munfordville 
Civil War Site. 

David Hawkins, President, Hart County Historical 
Society, P.O. Box 606, Munfordville, KY 42765, 
(502) 524-0101. 

Jamestown Historical Society - Rhode Island - 
$25,000 - Revolutionary War 

Funds will be used by the Jamestown Historical Society to 
develop a preservation plan for Conanicut Battery. 
Edwin Connelly, Chairman, Friends of Conanicut Battery, 
P.O. Box 156, Jamestown. RI 02835, (401) 423-0608. 

Kentucky Archaeological Survey - Kentucky - 
$25,000 -Civil War 

The Kentucky Archaeological Survey, a joint venture 
between the Kentucky Heritage Council and the University 

of Kentucky's Department of Anthropology, will survey and 
map historic battle lines in two areas of the Battle of 
Richmond National Register District in order to confirm 
battlefield boundaries and historical accounts of the battle. 
Dr. Kim A. McBride, Co-Director, Kentucky 
Archaeological Survey, 1020 A Export Street, Lexington, 
KY 40506, (606) 257-1944. 

Mill Springs Battlefield Association - Kentucky - 
$15,000 -Civil War 

Mill Springs Battlefield Association will attempt to determine 
the exact location of six Confederate mass grave sites and 
approximately 700 sites of CSA cabins so that these re- 
sources may be protected from residential development at 
Beech Grove. 

David E. Gilbert, Administrator, Mill Springs Battlefield 
Association, P.O. Box 814, Somerset, KY 42502. 
(606) 679-1859. 

National Park Service, Cultural Resources GIS 
Facility - Georgia - $60,000 - Civil War 

ABPP funds will pay for GPS surveys at eight battlefields 
associated with the 1 864 Atlanta Campaign and a GIS 
database for use by state, regional, and local land use planning 
agencies. The project will be undertaken in partnership with 
the Georgia State Historic Preservation Office. 
David Lowe, Historian, CRGLS, National Park Service, 
1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240. 
(202) 343-1034. 

National Parks and Conservation Association - 
New Mexico - $33,600 - Civil War 

The main goal of the project is to increase support for the 
protection and restoration of the Glorieta Pass battlefield by 
developing various educational materials for the community. 
David J. Simon, Southwest Regional Director, 823 Gold 
Avenue, SW, Albuquerque, NM 87102, (505) 247-1221. 

Partners in Parks - Virginia/North Carolina - $40,500 - 
Civil War/Revolutionary War 

Partners in Parks will organize an internship program to assist 
several Civil War, and one Revolutionary War, battlefield 
sites. Twelve student interns will work on various preserva- 
tion projects at the sites. Battlefield sites participating in the 
program are: Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Mine 
Run, Trevilian Station, Aquia Landing, and Sailor's Creek, all 
in Virginia, and Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina. 
Sarah G. Bishop, President, Partners in Parks, 4916 
Butterworth Place, NW, Washington, DC 20016, 
(202) 364-7244. 

State of Connecticut - Connecticut - $40,000 - 
Revolutionary War 

The State of Connecticut will prepare a comprehensive 
preservation, interpretation, and resource management plan 
for Fort Gnswold State Park. 

Jonathan Lincoln, Park Supervisor, Fort Griswold 
Battlefield State Park, 57 Fort Street, Groton, CT 06340, 
(860) 445-1729. 

Tennessee Historical Commission - 
Tennessee/Georgia - $15,200 - Civil War 

ABPP grant funding will be used to prepare a National 
Register of Historic Places nomination for battle sites 
associated with the campaigns and occupation of 
Chattanooga. This project includes six sites in Tennessee and 
six sites in Georgia. It will be carried out in cooperafion with 
the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. 
Steve Rogers or Claudette Stager, Historic Preservation 
Specialists, 2941 Lebanon Road, Nashville, TN 37243, 
(615) 532-1550. 

University of South Carolina - South Carolina - 
$36,600 -Civil War 

use's Office of Sponsored Programs and Research will 
gather historical information and GPS field data for thirteen 
sites associated with the Confederate defense of the 
Charleston & Savannah Railroad. Data will be used to 
create GIS-generated maps of each site, develop a historic 
context statement, and complete archaeological site forms, all 
of which will be integrated into a National Register 

Steven D. Smith or Christopher Olm Clement, Principal 
Investigators, South Carolina Institute of Archaeology 
and Anthropology, 1321 Pendleton Street, Columbia, SC 
29208, (803) 777-8044. 

Valley Conservation Council - Virginia - $30,200 - 
Civil War 

The VCC will produce a guide for "Better Models for 
Development in the Shenandoah Valley." This guide will 
illustrate local examples of good development practices and 
will advocate development designs that preserve the aesthetic 
and historic context of the Valley's Civil War battlefields. 
Faye C. Cooper, Executive Director, Valley Conservation 
Council, P.O. Box 2335, 19 Barrister Row, Staunton, VA 
24402, (540) 886-3541. 

For information about other 
ABPP projects, see page 2! 

Brices Cross Roads, Mississippi Battlefield Preservation Profile 

In the summer of 1 864, Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's army advanced on Atlanta, 
Georgia, an industrial and railroad center for the Confederacy. In an effort to thwart the 
Union advance, Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest's roving Confederate army constantly 
raided the Federal supply lines. To end Forrest's trouble making, Sherman ordered Brig. 
Gen. Samuel Sturgis to march from Memphis, Tennessee, and locate and destroy Forrest's 
command. At that time, the Confederate troops were moving toward the Nashville and 
Chattanooga Railroad, a vital Union supply line into Georgia. After Sturgis began his 
expedition, Forrest was recalled and ordered to engage the Federals. The two forces met 
in northeast Mississippi at Brices Cross Roads on June 10, 1864. Forrest deployed his 
mounted infantry, a tactic that gave his army great mobility without becoming exhausted. 
They routed the Federals and forced them to retreat to Memphis, Tennessee. The 
overwhelming defeat prompted Sherman to order a second and larger expedition against 
Forrest's army which succeeded in luring it into battle at Tupelo, Mississippi, where the 
Federals crippled the Confederate force. 

Preservation Activity 

Preservation activity began at this site when the War Department, as the result of a 
Congressionally directed study commemorating Civil War battlefields, designated one 
acre of the site a national battlefield in 1 929. The War Department maintained the site until 
1933 when it was transferred to the National Park Service (NPS). Beginning in 1938, the 
NPS administered the site as part of the Natchez Trace Parkway, which runs between 
Natchez, Mississippi, and Nashville, Tennessee. In 1966, the one-acre site was listed in 
the National Register of Historic Places. 

Efforts to preserve the entire site, more than 2,000 acres, would not occur for another 24 
years. In 1990, the Secretary of the Interior established the American Battlefield Protection 
Program (ABPP). At the same time. Congress and the Secretary appointed the Civil War 
Sites Advisory Commission to study and rank the nation's Civil War battlefields. The 
Commission's report, released in 1993, designated Brices Cross Roads one of the 50 most 
threatened Civil War battlefields in the country. That same year the Governor of Mississippi 
established a Battlefield Commission for the State. 

Local preservation efforts at the site increased with assistance from the ABPP. In 1 994, the 
Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites (APCWS) completed a protection plan 
funded by the ABPP. The ABPP provided funds in 1995 for the APCWS to develop a 
master plan for Brices Cross Roads. Later that same year. The Civil War Trust (CWT) 
added the site to its Civil War Discovery Trail. In 1996, the APCWS, the CWT (using 
fiinds raised through the sale of Civil War commemorative coins), the State of Mississippi, 
and Lee and Prentiss Counties contributed fiinds to acquire more than 830 acres of the 
battlefield. The ABPP also provided the Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Commission 
with funds to begin an interpretive project. A National Historic Landmark application for 
the battlefield is currently pending review by the National Park Service. 

Today 831 acres of this 2,085-acre* battlefield are protected. 

*This acreage represents the study area of the battlefield defmed in a survey completed as 
part of the 1993 Civil War Sites Advisory Commission's study. 

To learn more about this site contact: Jim Woodrick, Mississippi Department of Archives 
and History, P.O. Box 571, Jackson, MS 39205, (601) 359-6947. 

ABPP Transitions 

Chris Shaheen, preservation planner, 
and Neil Mangum, historian and project 
manager, have left the ABPP for new 
jobs. We wish them both well but are 
sorry to see them go. 

Chris accepted a position with the 
District of Columbia Board of Educa- 
tion as an Information Specialist in 
February. During his five-year tenure 
with the ABPP, Chris was responsible 
for preparing Civil War Sites Advisory 
Commission documentation for distribu- 
tion to state historic preservation 
offices, updating the ABPP's battlefield 
preservation database, compiling 
Battlefield Preservation Profiles, and 
reviewing preservation planning projects 
in Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, 
and Oklahoma. 

For five years, Neil, formerly the 
National Park Service's Southwest 
Regional Historian, has supervised 
several special projects for the ABPP. 
He conducted a survey of Mexican 
War sites in the United States and has 
worked extensively on battlefield 
projects in Texas. Neil assumed the 
Supermdency of Little Bighorn 
Battlefield Nafional Monument in 
March 1998. He will continue as an 
advisor to the ABPP. 

With Chris and Neil leaving. Ginger 
Carter and Tanya Gossett will be the 
new ABPP point-of-contacts for 
organizations undertaking battlefield 
preservation projects in states west of 
the Mississippi River. If your 
organization's project is in Louisiana, 
Arkansas, Missouri, or New Mexico, 
please contact Ginger at (202) 343- 
1210. If your project is in Texas, 
Oklahoma, Wyoming, or Montana, 
please call Tanya at (202) 343-3449. 

Civil War Trust Sponsors 
Park Day '98 

On Saturday, April 25, The Civil War 
Trust will sponsor its third annual Park 
Day event to help Civil War battlefields 
and sites across America. Each 
participating park has identified their 
most pressmg need—painting signs, 
laying trails, cleaning headstones, 
restoring earthworks, or clearing debris. 
Park Day is a great opportunity for 
battlefield enthusiasts to volunteer for a 
hands-on preservation experience. 

These sites need your assistance, 
but it won't be all work! Staff at every 
site will give special talks about the 
history and meaning of the land volun- 
teers are helping to maintain. Also, 
volunteers will receive free CWT gifts. 

If you would like to volunteer for 
Park Day '98, please contact the site 
you are interested in for details. For 
more information about participating 
sites, check the What's New at the 
Trust section of CWT's website at 

Park Day '98 Sites 


Fort Gaines 334-861-6992 


Pea Ridge NMP 501-451-8122 

Frame Grove Battlefield SF 501-846-2990 


Fort Delaware SF 302-834-7941 


Olustee Battlefield SHS 904-758-0400 


Anderson ville NHS 912-924-0343 
Chickamauga & Chattanooga 423-624-6914 
Kennesaw Mountain NBP 770-427-4686 
Jefferson Davis Memorial 912-831-2335 
Ficketts' Mill SHS 770-443-7850 


Lincoln Boyhood NMem 812-937-3686 


Mine Creek Battlefield 913-795-4365 ,^ 


Lincoln Birthplace NHS 502-358-3 1 37 

Fort Duffield 502-922-4797 

Mill Spnngs Battlefield 606-679-1859 


Fort De Russy 3 1 8-876-3702 

Fort Jackson/Fort St. Philip 504-394-0018 

Port Hudson SCA 504-654-3775 


Antietam NB 301-432-2243 

Fort McHenry NM 410-962-4290 

Monocacy NB 30 1 -662-35 1 5 

South Mountain Battlefield 301-371-7090 


Battle of Lexington SHS 816-259-4654 
Fort Davidson SHS 314-546-3454 
Wilson's Creek NB 4 1 7-732-2662 


Glorieta Pass Battlefield 505-757-64 1 4 ext. 23 


Bentonville Battleground SHS 910-954-0789 


Fort Towson Historic Site 405-873-2634 


Fort Moultrie NHS 803-883-3 1 23 


The Carter House 615-791-1861 
Fort Pillow SHS 901-738-5581 
Stones River NB 6 1 5-893-950 1 
Winstead Hill 800-457-8301 


Fort Davis NHS 9 1 5-426-3224 


The Ariington House 703-557-0613 

Cedar Creek Battlefield 540-869-2064 

Fort Ward Park 703-838-4848 

Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania 540-371-1882 

Manassas NBP 703-361-7376 

New Market Battlefield 540-740-3 1 02 

Petersburg NB 804-732-0171 

Richmond NBP 804-226- 1981 

Staunton River Battlefield SP 804-454-4312 


Jackson's Mill 1 -800-287-8206 ext. 1 2 1 

Rich Mountain Battlefield 304-637-7424 

Literature and 

In January 1998, the Newtonia 
Battlefields Protection Associafion 
published its report on the Newtonia 
Battlefields Archaeological Survey, 

conducted by White Star Consulting of 
Mount Pleasant, Tennessee. The 
ABPP funded the survey project. 

The project required intensive 
archival research of the 1862 and 1864 
battles of Newtonia, Missouri, and the 
preparation of a detailed historic context 
document. The purpose of the archae- 
ological investigation was to verify 
movem.ents, positions, and locations of 
specific Confederate and Federal units. 
A total of 124.7 acres of the Newtonia 
battlefield were investigated during the 
archaeological survey. 

The results of the survey included 
the precise idenfification of the center 
and west flank of the September 1862 
engagement, a determination of the 
general area of the east flank of the 
September 1 862 engagement, the 
location of one and possibly two Union 
garrison campsites, and retrieval, identi- 
fication, and curation of more than 430 
battle and garrison-related artifacts. 

For more information about the 
archaeological survey, please contact 
Thomas Higdon, Newtonia Battlefields 
Protection Association, P.O. Box 106, 
Newtonia, MO 64853. 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
Washington, DC 20240 


Mark your calendars for the Four 
downtown Charleston, South Carol 
will host the conference in partners 
Trust, and the Fort Sumter National 
historic battlefields, and effective n 
listing battlefields on the National R 
treatment of maritime battle sites, aj 

This book must not be 
taken from the Library 
building without special 





PERMIT No. G-83 

nation in departmental Federally Assisted 
'ho believes he or she has been 
ould write to; Director, Equal 
Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240. 

-vation, to be held in historic 
Battlefield Protection Program 
:ivil War Sites, The Civil War 
s and techniques used to define 
jssions and workshops include 
5ne and protect battlefield land. 

We plan to offer tours of Fort Sumter, Secessionville battlefield, and the Colonial Village of Old Dorchester. Other 
activities may include walking tours of Charleston's historic district and jaunts to several Low Country plantations. 

The conference will be held at the Westin Francis Marion Hotel, at King and Calhoun Streets, Charleston. Room 
rates for the conference are $ 1 29 per night. Make your hotel reservations by calling (800) 433-3733 and mention that 
you will be attending the "Battlefield Preservation Conference." Please direct all comments and inquiries about the 
conference to Hampton Tucker of the ABPP at (202) 343-3580 or 

Summer 1 998 


newsletter of the 

American Battlefield Protection Program 

U.S. Department of the Interior ♦ National Park Service ♦ Heritage Preservation Services 

Issue No. 70 

Transportation Law Provides Millions for Preservation 

The Intermodal Surface Transportation 
Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) was 
reauthorized by Congress on May 22 
and signed into law by President Clinton 
on June 9. Dubbed "TEA-21", the 
Transportation Equity Act for the 21" 
Century is a $2 1 7 billion, six-year public 
works bill that will provide funding for 
improvements to highways and bridges 
throughout the country. The bill repre- 
sents the largest increase m public 
works spending in the nation's history. 
Of particular relevance to historic 
preservation is the provision for funding 
transportation enhancement projects. 
Funding for these types of projects is 
included in the law to complement 
intermodal transportation initiatives. 
Many of the transportation enhance- 
ment activities allowed under the new 
law may directly benefit battlefields. 
These activities include "provision of 
facilities for pedestrians and bicycles, 
provision of safety and educational 
activities for pedestrians and bicyclists, 

acquisition of scenic easements and 
scenic or historic sites, scenic or historic 
highway programs (including the provi- 
sion of tourist and welcome center 
facilities), landscaping and other scenic 
beautification, historic preservation, 
rehabilitation and operation of historic 
transportation buildings, structures, or 
facilities (including histonc railroad 
facilities and canals), preservation of 
abandoned railway corridors (including 
the conversion and use thereof for 
pedestrian or bicycle trails), control and 
removal of outdoor advertising, and 
archaeological planning and research." 
Initial estimates indicate that transporta- 
tion enhancement funds for TEA-2 1 will 
average $630 million annually, a 46.5% 
increase over ISTEA, which generated 
roughly $430 million annually. 

According to The Civil War Trust, 
more than 50 Civil War projects in 12 
states have been funded with ISTEA 
money since 1991. Overall, $23.6 million 
in ISTEA funds and $20.2 million in 

matching funds have been used to 
preserve and interpret Civil War battle- 
fields and sites. TEA-21 represents the 
largest source of funding for battlefield 
preservation and enhancement projects 
currently available. 

The new law also makes specific 
appropriations for the Richmond and 
Shenandoah Valley Civil War battlefields. 
TEA-21 provides $1 million in 1999 for 
the National Park Service to rehabilitate 
the histonc Tredegar Iron Works, which 
will serve as a new visitor center for 
Richmond National Battlefield Park. The 
Shenandoah Valley Battlefields National 
Historic District Commission will receive 
$500,000 over the next two years (appro- 
priated from the Highway Trust Fund) to 
develop a plan for the interpretation and 
protection of 10 Civil War battlefields in 
the Shenandoah Valley. 

For more information about TEA-2 1 , 
please contact The Civil War Trust at 
(703) 5 1 6-4944 or your State Histonc 
Preservation Office. 

Charleston Conference Set 

Please join the American Battlefield Protection Program and its 
partners— the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites 
(APCWS), The Civil War Tmst, and the National Conference of 
State Historic Preservation Officers— for the Fourth National Con- 
ference on Battlefield Preservation in historic downtown 
Charleston, South Carohna, from September 16-19, 1998. The 
conference, entitled "Defining Battlefields: Why, How, and What 
Then?" will explore the tools and tecliniques used to define his- 
toric battlefields, and effective methods of protecting battlefield 
land. Sessions and workshops include nominating sites to the 

See CONFERENCE, page 5 


Fort Sumter National Monument 
HABS Photo 



Chancellorsville Added 
TO Most Endangered List 

The National Trust for Historic Preser- 
vation recently unveiled this year's list 
of "America's 1 1 Most Endangered 
Historic Places." The Chancellorsville 
Battlefield, the scene of what many 
Civil War historians consider to be Gen. 
Robert E. Lee's greatest victory, was 
included on the list. 

The Chancellorsville Battlefield is 
part of the Fredericksburg and 
Spotsylvania National Military Park in 
Spotsylvania County, one of the fastest 
growing counties m Virginia. The site 
straddles State Route 3, which is rapidly 
being lined with fast food restaurants, 
convenience stores, retail malls, and 

residential subdivisions. According to 
the National Trust, this proliferation of 
sprawl-type development prompted the 
inclusion of the battlefield on this year's 
list. Although the list is merely a 
designation which carries no legal 
implications, preservationists hope that 
the public awareness generated by the 
list will spur citizens and government 
officials into acfion. According to the 
National Trust, since the inception of the 
list m 1 988, no site that has been named 
to the list has been lost. 

CuiTently, only 1,944.5 acres of the 
2 1 ,874-acre Chancellorsville Battlefield 
are protected. Most of the protected 
parcels lie within the core area of the 
battlefield, where the heaviest fighfing 
occurred. The National Park Service 
owns 1,482 acres of the site, including 

the route of Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stone- 
wall" Jackson's famous flanking march. 
However, approximately 5,600 acres 
within the core area of the battlefield 
remain in private hands. The price of 
land in the region has skyrocketed in 
recent years, making acquisition of 
battlefield land more difficult for preser- 
vation groups and the National Park 

The National Military Park and the 
non-profit Central Virginia Battlefields 
Trust nominated Chancellorsville to the 
"Most Endangered" list. Both the park 
and the land trust hope that the listing 
will encourage Spotsylvania County and 
local landowners to take action to help 
protect endangered battlefield land. 


Published by the National Park Service 

Robert Stanton 

Kathenne H. Stevenson 
Associate Director, Cultural Resources 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 
Chief, Heritage Preser-vation Services 

H. Bryan Mitchell 

Chief, American Battlefield 

Protection Program 

Tanya M. Gossett 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

Battlefield Update is published quarterly 
and is available free of charge. Send 

articles, news items, and correspondence to 

the Editor, Battlefield Update, National Park 
Service, Heritage Preservation Services, 
American Battlefield Protection Program, 

1 849 C Street, NW, (NC330) Washington, DC 
20240. PHONE (202) 343-3449; FAX (202) 

343-392 1 ; EMAIL 


New Magazine Features National 
Historic Landmarks 

The Heritage Preservation Services 
Division of the National Park Service is 
pleased to present National Historic 
Landmarks Network. This new publica- 
tion was created for National Historic 
Landmark (NHL) own- 
ers, managers, and 
friends. It presents is- 
sues important to pre- 
serving the nation's 
most significant his- 
toric sites. 

National Historic 
Landmarks are sites of 
national significance to 
the history of the United 
States that meet strin- 
gent criteria for integ- 
rity. There are currently 
2,248 NHLs, of which 
115 are battlefields or 
battle-related sites. 

The magazine fo- 
cuses on NHL protection activities tak 
ing place across the country and spot 



Park Service and the stewards of these 
historic sites. Contributors to Network 
report on current legislation, restoration 
case studies, grants and other sources 
of financial assistance, technical assis- 
tance publications, and 
regional events and 
preservation activities 
at NHLs. 

Network is pub- 
lished biannually and is 
free of charge. To sub- 
scribe, please call the 
Publications Director 
at (202) 343-9583 or 
write to the National 
Park Service, Heritage 
Preservation Services, 
1849 C Street, NW, 
(NC330) Washington, 
DC 20240. For more 
information about the 
National Historic 
Landmarks Survey and Assistance pro- 
grams, please visit their Web site at 

riifj an viiL ^wi4»* 


lights partnerships between the National 

Arizona and Kentucky Sites Make 
National Register 

Between March and May of 1998, one site associated with 
the Indian Wars and two sites associated with the Civil War 
were listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The 
State of Arizona nominated the Geronimo Surrender Site, 
which is significant to Arizona's military history. The 
Commonwealth of Kentucky nominated the Danville National 
Cemetery and the Mill Springs National Cemetery, both 
established to commemorate soldiers who died in the Civil 
War, as part of a state- wide effort to identify and recognize 
such sites. 

The Geronimo Surrender Site in Cochise County, Arizona, 
is the location where, on September 4, 1 886, Apache leader 
Geronimo and Brig. Gen. Nelson A. Miles of the U.S. Army 
agreed to terms that ended hostilities between Chiricahua and 
Warm Springs Apaches and Americans in Arizona. This 
treaty is arguably the most significant accord signed between 
Indians and the United States government in Arizona, con- 
cluding a 40-year period of brutal warfare in the territory. 
Soon after Geronimo and Miles agreed upon the treaty, Capt. 
Henry W. Lawton erected a monument of rough stone to 
mark the location of the agreement. Originally ten feet across 
and six feet high, the now-crumbled monument overlooks 
Skeleton Canyon and a broad vista of the San Bernardino and 
San Simon Valleys. 

The Danville National Cemetery in Boyle County, 
Kentucky, was established as a cemetery for Union soldiers 
during the Civil War. In 1868, the U.S. War Department 
declared the site a national cemetery to commemorate 
soldiers who died when Confederate Brig. Gen. John 
Pegram's cavalry brigade captured Danville in March 1863. 
The cemetery's period of significance extends from the Civil 
War through the 1950s. This cemetery is the final resting 
place of 393 soldiers who died in many different wars and 
who served in every branch of the armed services. 

The 3.5-acre Mill Springs National Cemetery contains the 
remains of Union soldiers killed during the Battle of Mill 
Springs in January 1 862, as well as soldiers who served in the 
U.S. Army from the Civil War through the 20th century. The 
Union victory at Mill Springs broke the Confederate defensive 
line across Kentucky, leaving all of eastern Kentucky in Union 
hands and opening the way for the invasion of pro-Union 
eastern Tennessee. In addition to the original battle casual- 
ties, Union soldiers who died within 50 miles of the battlefield 
were buried in the cemetery, including soldiers who died in 
local hospitals afier the battle or were killed in skinnishes. 
The cemetery's post-Civil War interments included a Buffalo 
Soldier who received the Medal of Honor for heroism in the 
Indian Wars and veterans of both World Wars. 

Mill Springs National Cemetery. NRHP File Photo. 

The National Register is the nation's official list of cultural 
resources worthy of preservation. Sites listed in the National 
Register are recognized as being significant to the nation, a 
state, or a community; are considered in the planning for 
Federal or federally assisted projects; are eligible for Federal 
tax benefits; and may qualify for Federal assistance for his- 
toric preservation when funds are available. 

On the Hill 

On June 15, 1998, the Senate passed a non-binding 
resolution that reiterated the Senate's continued interest 
in Revolutionary War, War of 1812, and Civil War 
battlefield preservation. The Senate recommended that 
funds be made available in the FY99 Federal budget to 
1) conduct the Revolutionary War and War of 1812 
Historic Preservation Study, and 2) earmark Land and 
Water Conservation Fund monies for acquisition of Civil 
War battlefield lands endangered by urban and suburban 
development. If the House agrees to the resolution, the 
resulting Sense of Congress resolution could guide FY99 
appropriations for battlefield preservation. 

Following closely on the heels of the resolution, the Senate 
Appropriations Committee made its initial, draft mark-ups 
to the President's Proposed FY99 Budget for the 
Department of the Interior. The committee included 
$3 75 ,000 to begin the Revolutionary War and War of 1 8 1 2 
Historic Preservation Study. The House Committee on 
Appropriations did not include funding for the study in its 
mark-ups. As Battlefield Update goes to press, neither 
full house has acted on the FY99 Budget. 

Partnership Protects Land 
AT Pilot Knob 

Forty acres of hallowed ground on the 
Pilot Knob battlefield in Iron County, 
Missouri, have been added to the Fort 
Davidson State Historic Site. This 
announcement, made April 3, 1998, 
came from the partners who worked to 
purchase the land, i.e. The 
Conservation Fund, The Civil War 
Trust, the Committee to Preserve and 
Protect Pilot Knob Battlefield, The 
Gilder Foundation, and the Missouri 
Department of Natural Resources. The 
Arcadia Valley Chamber of Commerce 
and the St. Louis Civil War Round 
Table also contributed to the project. 
The newly purchased 40-acre plot lies 
adjacent to Fort Davidson and more 
than doubles the size of the historic site. 

Each of the partner groups ex- 
pressed its deep satisfaction with the 
combined accomplishment and noted its 
importance to the community. Steve 
Mahfood, Director of the Missouri 
Department of Natural Resources, 
remarked, "We are excited about this 
cooperative effort to preserve more of 
the undeveloped area of the battlefield. 
This addition lies within the view from 
the rampart of Fort Davidson and will 
enhance visitors' understanding of the 
battle." Rita Henroid, Chair of the Iron 
County Committee to Preserve and 
Protect Pilot Knob Battlefield, added, 
"The people of Iron County are commit- 
ted to preserving [this] historic land and 
to honoring the soldiers who fought and 
died in the battle." 

The Battle of Pilot Knob occurred 
m September 1864. A Confederate 
army under Maj. Gen. Sterling Price 
crossed into Missouri with the goal of 
capturing St. Louis. On September 17, 
near Pilot Knob Mountain, Price at- 
tacked the Federal garrison at Fort 
Davidson. In the late afternoon. Price's 
men repeatedly but unsuccessfully 
assaulted the fort, suffering heavy 

casualties. During the night, the 
Federals evacuated the fort. Price paid 
a heavy price in manpower and fime for 
his victory at Pilot Knob. Union forces 
gained the necessary time to concen- 
trate and defend St. Louis, which 
dissuaded Price from attacking the city. 

For more information about 
preservation at Pilot Knob, contact The 
Conservation Fund, 1 800 North Kent 
Street, Suite 1 120, Arlington, VA 22209, 
(703) 683-2996, or Rita Henroid, Iron 
County Economical Development 
Coordinator, 250 South Main Street, 
Ironton, MO 63650,(573)546-7690. 

Mine Creek Visitors 
Center Under 

On April 1 , 1 998, construction began on 
a permanent Visitors Information 
Center at the Mine Creek Battlefield 
State Historic Site in Linn County, 
Kansas. The Kansas State Historical 
Society, which operates the site, 
expects that the facility will open by 
November 1998. 

The new facility will enable visitors 
to understand better what occurred on 
this ground in October 1 864. About six 
miles south of Trading Post, Kansas, 
two brigades of Maj. Gen. Alfred 
Pleasonton's Provisional Cavalry 
Division overtook Maj. Gen. Sterling 
Price's rearguard as it crossed Mine 
Creek. The Southerners formed up on 
the north side of the creek. Although 
outnumbered, the Federals attacked. 
Additional troops from Pleasonton's 
command arrived during the fight. 
They soon surrounded the Confederates 
and ultimately captured about 600 men 
and two generals. Brig. Gen. John S. 
Marmaduke and Brig. Gen. William L. 

A large exhibit room within the new 
Visitors Center will contain authentic 

reproductions of clothing, medical 
equipment, weapons, and accouter- 
ments such as those employed during 
the battle. The Civil War Round Table 
of Kansas City is sponsoring the project 
and raising the funds required to provide 
these much needed items to the Mine 
Creek collection. 

For additional information about the 
Mine Creek Battlefield Visitors 
Information Center, contact site curator 
Kip Lmdberg at (913) 795-4365. To 
learn how you can help sponsor exhibit 
room development, please contact the 
Civil War Round Table of Kansas City 
at (913) 648-25 17 or (913) 649-5040. 

Award- Winning Plan 

Completed for 
Confederate Works 

The Lost Mountain to Brushy 
Mountain Earthworks Preservation 
Plan has been completed and published. 
Funded by the American Battlefield 
Protection Program, the plan identifies 
and maps 13 study areas of existing 
Confederate earthworks along a seven- 
mile front and recommends preservation 
and interpretation treatments for major 
sections of the defensive lines. The 
maps, produced in a Geographic 
Information System, convey the en- 
vironmental, cultural, and land use 
opportunities and constraints that exist 
at each of the remaining earthwork 

The 45-page Earthworks 
Preservation Plan was prepared for 
Kennesaw Mountain National 
Battlefield Park by ED AW, Inc., a 
planning firm based in Atlanta, Georgia. 
The plan earned the prestigious Honor 
Award from the Georgia Chapter of the 
American Society of Landscape 
Architects, and has already been 
adopted as part of the Cobb County 
Comprehensive Land Use Plan. 

CONFERENCE, from page 1 

National Register of Historic Places, using archeology to define and protect battlefield land, identifying and documenting naval 
battle sites, and using different types of survey data to produce preservation plans and protect battlefield land. Preservationists, 
community planners, archeologists, government officials, and battlefield landowners, managers, and enthusiasts are encouraged 
to attend the conference. 

On Wednesday, September 16, the APCWS will host a workshop exploring the entire process of acquiring battlefield property 
for preservation purposes. On Friday, September 1 8, The Civil War Trust will host a workshop that will detail the intricacies and 
opportunities of TEA-21 (see page 1) and provide guidance to participants interested in applying for TEA-2 1 funding. On Friday 
evening, the ABPP will host a tour of Fort Sumter and a dinner cruise on Charleston Harbor. On Saturday, September 19, 
attendees may choose between a tour of Revolutionary War sites near Charleston or a tour of Civil War sites on James Island. The 
Revolutionary War tour is tentatively scheduled to include Fort Moultrie, Old Dorchester, Biggin Church, and Moncks Comer. 
The Civil War tour will stop at Secessionville, Fort Johnson, Battery Tynes, and Battery Pringle. 

The conference will be held at the Westin Francis Marion Hotel, at King and Calhoun Streets in Charleston's historic district. The 
room rate for the conference is $129 per night. To make hotel reservations call (843) 722-0600 and mention that you will be 
attending the "Battlefield Preservation Conference". The deadline for hotel reservations is August 15, 1998. 

The registration fee for the Fourth National Conference on Battlefield Preservation is $90. This fee entitles registrants to 
participate in Thursday and Friday conference sessions, the Friday evening Fort Sumter tour and dinner cruise, and a Saturday 
tour. The conference registration deadline is August 21, 1998. Registration forms are available from the ABPP and the 
ABPP web site ( Please call Hampton Tucker at (202) 343-3580 or Jeff Everett at 

(202) 343-2331 for additional information. 

The events of June 1864 brought 
the Civil War to Cobb County, Georgia. 
Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's 
Federals were moving inexorably to- 
ward Atlanta, while Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston's Confederates doggedly 
attempted to slow the Union army's 
progress. In early June, Jolinston estab- 
lished a defensive line of fortifications 
that ran for ten unbroken miles from 
Brushy Mountain to Lost Mountain. In 
a series of direct assaults and flanking 
maneuvers (the battles of Pine 
Mountain, Gilgal Church, Noonday 
Creek, and Kolb's Farm) that occurred 
between June 14-17, Sherman's army 
compelled the Confederates to with- 
draw from the Brushy Mountain to Lost 
Mountain line. Johnston's army then 
took up new positions astride Kennesaw 

If you would like to receive a copy 
of the Earthworks Preservation Plan, 
contact Kennesaw Mountain National 
Battlefield Park, 905 Kennesaw 

Mountain Drive, Kennesaw, GA 30152, 

Marland Launches 
Warof 1812 Project 

On May 22, 1998, the State of 
Maryland kicked off an interpretation 
and education project to help 
Marylanders and visitors to the state 
understand the important role the War 
of 1 8 1 2 played in the history of the 
nation. Maryland hopes to emulate 
Virginia's successful Civil War Trails 
heritage tourism program to draw 
visitors to the state's War of 1812 sites. 

The Maryland Office of Tourism 
Development, the Maryland Historical 
Trust, and the Maryland Office of 
Cultural Resources lead this initiative, 
which relies on partnerships between 
the state, the National Park Service, 

county tourism offices, and publicly and 
privately owned historic sites. The 
State has offered to assist individual 
historic sites in developing museum 
exhibits and outdoor interpretative 
waysides, to produce and distribute 
promotional literature about the war, 
and to help local governments and 
private organizations establish new, 
publicly accessible sites. Maryland 
officials believe this project will have 
strong appeal to both American and 
British visitors. 

Maryland, while most famous for 
the Baltimore Riots in June and July 
1812 and the bombardment of Fort 
McHenry in September 1814, boasts 75 
heritage tourism sites associated with 
Mr. Madison's War. 

For more information about the 
Maryland War of 1 8 1 2 Statewide 
Initiative, please contact Barbara 
Stewart of the Maryland Historical 
Trust at (410) 586-8531. 

Moccasin Bend and the City of Cliattanooga 
from Lookout /fountain. ABPP Photo. 

Sttlefield Preservation Profile 


After his defeat at Chickamauga, Georgia, in September 
1 863, an unnerved Union Brig. Gen. William S. Rosecrans 
ordered his Army of the Cumberland to withdraw to 
Chattanooga. The city, captured by the Union earlier that 
September, was the hub of several railroads providing access 
to all parts of the Confederacy. Concerned about the situation 
at Chattanooga, m October, President Lincoln ordered Union 
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to take control of the Federal armies 
in the West. Grant removed Rosecrans as commander of the 
Army of the Cumberland, installed Brig. Gen. George H. 
Thomas in Rosecrans' place, and immediately undertook steps 
to raise the Confederate siege of Chattanooga. Gen. Braxton 
Bragg's Confederates were deployed on and along Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, south and east of 
Chattanooga. From these positions, the Confederates 
threatened both the city and its supply lines along the Tennessee 
River. Bragg planned to hold the city under siege and force 
the Union troops out of Tennessee. Nevertheless, Grant was 
able to open a supply line to the city from the west that allowed 
him to mount an offensive against the Confederates on 
November 23-25. The ensuing Union victory lifted the siege 
of the city and decimated the morale of the Confederacy. 
Chattanooga's railroads became the Union's gateway into the 
Deep South. 

Preservation at the site began in 1890 when Congress 
established the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National 
Military Park to commemorate the battle. Small portions of 
the battlefields were purchased and, over the next 20 years, 
various veterans groups and state commissions installed nu- 
merous monuments on these small battlefield reservations. In 
the 1930's, local residents donated more than 2,400 acres on 
Lookout Mountain to the National Park Service. In 1966, 

2,700 acres of the battlefield (the bound- 
aries of the park) were listed in the 
National Register of Historic Places. No 
historically significant land has been added 
to the park in more than 50 years. 

The Secretary of the Interior estab- 
lished the American Battlefield Protection 
Program (ABPP) in 1990. That same year. 
Congress and the Secretary appointed the 
Civil War Sites Advisory Commission to 
study and rank the nation's Civil War battle- 
fields. In the 1993 Civil War Sites 
Advisory Commission Report, the Chat- 
tanooga Battlefield was identified as one 
of this country's top 50 priority battlefield 
sites for preservation. 

Recent preservation activities at the site include The Civil 
War Trust's adding the site to its Civil War Discovery Trail in 
1995. In 1996, the ABPP funded the Chattanooga Area Civil 
War Sites Assessment (CACWSA), a joint effort of the com- 
munity and the park to identify and encourage the protection 
of Civil War battlefield resources located outside the park's 

Last year the ABPP awarded two grants to facilitate pres- 
ervation activity as recommended by the CACWSA. The 
Friends of Moccasin Bend National Park, Inc., received a 
grant to identify and evaluate significant battlefield features 
within Moccasin Bend, prepare a report describing activities 
there that were key to the Chattanooga Campaign, and pro- 
vide preservation and interpretation recommendations for Civil 
War resources at the site. The second grant was awarded to 
Reflection Riding, a 300-acre botanical park, historical site, 
and nature preserve, to evaluate cultural resources on the 
portions of the Lookout Mountain and Wauhatchie battlefields 
that it owns. 

Today 2,700 acres of this 25,429-acre"' 
battlefield are protected. 

For more information on the protection of this site, contact 
Jim Ogden, Historian, Chickamauga and Chattanooga 
National Military Park, P.O. Box 2128, Fort Oglethorpe, GA 
30742, or call (423) 752-521 3 ext. 1 1 6. 

* This acreage represents the study area of the battlefield defined in a survey 
completed as part of the 1993 Civil War Sites Advisory Commission Report. 

Literature & Information 

A third edition of The Civil War Trust's 
Official Guide to the Civil War 
Discovery Trail is now available. Com- 
pletely revised and updated, this edition 
includes four more states and 94 new sites 
for Civil War visitors to add to their itin- 
eraries. A Frommer's Guide published 
by Macmillan, the 320-page Official 
Guide includes site descriptions, state 
maps, and illustrations. 

The Official Guide describes more 
than 500 Civil War sites in 28 states. It 
also provides invaluable travel informa- 
tion, including exact directions to the sites, 
admission fees, seasons and hours, visi- 
tor services, detailed and accurate 
orientation maps, and reenactments and 
special events schedules. 

A portion of the proceeds from sales 
of the Official Guide will be used for 
battlefield preservation. To order the 
guide book ($1 3.95 plus shipping and han- 
dling), call 1-888-CW-TRAIL. 

To compliment the Official Guide, 
Civil War Discovery Trail sponsor 
Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc., 
has produced a new, full-color Discov- 
ery Trail brochure. On one side of the 
brochure, a national map indicates the lo- 
cations of all sites participating in the 
Discovery Trail and provides a telephone 
number for each. The reverse side of 
the brochure is filled with insights into 
such topics as the Underground Railroad 
and Civil War technology, and facts about 
famous Civil War figures such as 
Frederick Douglas and Belle Boyd . 

Please contact The Civil War Trust 
at (703) 516-4944 or 2101 Wilson 
Boulevard, Suite 1120, Arlington, VA 
22201 to order the Discovery Trail bro- 


The Fifth Annual Texas Civil War 
Preservation Seminar "Two Great 
Armies" will be held on November 21, 
1998. This year's seminar features speak- 
ers Ed Bearss, National Park Service 
Historian Emeritus, Dr. Gary Gallagher, 
acclaimed scholar and author from Penn- 
sylvania State University, and Dr. Rich- 
ard McMurry, noted historian and author. 

The seminar will be held at the 
Central Texas campus of Hill College in 
Hillsboro, Texas, with two-thirds of the 
proceeds from this conference going to- 
ward Civil War battlefield preservation. 

For information on attending this semi- 
nar, please contact Daniel M. Laney, Co- 
Chairman and President, Austin Civil War 
Round Table, 2302 Cypress Point West, 
Austin, TX 78746, (512) 306-9933 or 
Buddy Patterson, Co-Chairman and 
Director, Harold B. Simpson History 
Complex, Hill College, 112 Lamar, 
Hillsboro, TX 76645, (254) 582-2555 ext. 

The Chicago Historical Society will be 
holding its Second Annual Symposium 
entitled "The Experience and 
Meaning of Combat in the Civil War" 

on Friday, September 25, 1 998, at its head- 
quarters on North Clark Street, Chicago, 

Six speakers will address this topic as 
it applied to the common soldier, women, 
African-Americans, and Native Ameri- 
cans. Several special events are also 
planned, including a living history program, 
a Civil War encampment, and a book sign- 
ing session at the Abraham Lincoln Book 

Fees for the symposium are $35 with 
an additional $10 charge for those who 
wish to purchase a boxed lunch. For more 
information, contact Lorrain Mason, 
Chicago Historical Society, 1601 North 
Clark Street, Chicago, IL 60614, (312) 
642-5035 ext. 272. 


The Chrysler Museum of Art, in Norfolk, 
Virginia, is currently holding an exhibition 
entitled "Sacred Sites, Civil War, Then 
and Now" . The exhibit, which runs until 
August 30, 1998, features the works of 
many well-known Civil War photogra- 
phers and artists including Matthew 
Brady, Alexander Gardner, Winslow 
Homer, Edouard Manet, and Jim 

According to the museum, the exhibit, 
includes more than 200 historic and con- 
temporary works of art, many from rarely 
seen public and private collections. Eye- 
witness views are presented through a 
myi'iad of original photographs, paintings, 
watercolors, and drawings. Contempo- 
rary renderings of the same sacred sites, 
created by some of today's most excep- , 
tional artists, combine with the historic 
images to present a novel juxtaposition of 
past and present. 

For more information about the ex- , 
hibit, call Chrysler Museum Curator! 
Brooks Johnson at (757) 664-6200. 

National Park Service 
Heritage Preservation Services 
American Battlefield Protection Program 
1849CSt, NW(NC330) 
Washington, DC 20240 




PERMIT No. G-83 


This book must not be 
taken from the Library 
building without special 

Regulations of 
Programs on th 
discriminated a 
Opportunity Pr 

I SHop 

departmental Federally Assisted 
/es he or she has been 
ie to: Director, Equal 
4W, Washington, DC 20240. 


AUG 3 1998 



Battlefield Update 

Newsletter of the American Battlefield Protection Program 

Fall1998, No. 71 

On behalf of the American 
Battlefield Protection Program, I 
am pleased to introduce you to 
the newly designed Battlefield Update. 
It is organized to help you find specific 
information quickly and printed with 
improved illustrations and photos. Each 
issue will continue to include stories of 
general interest about battlefield 
preservation in the United States, as well 
as several new features, such as "Capital 
Watch"— summaries of current legislation 
in the U.S. Congress and state legislatures 
that may affect battlefield preservation— 
and "ABPP News"-notices about ABPP 
Drograms and projects. Please contact 
i:he ABPP staff if you have suggestions 
'or further improvements to the 

USattlefield Update reaches more than 

1,400 subscribers in all 50 states, the 

district of Columbia, and three U.S. 

erritories. Our subscribers represent 

i:tate and local government agencies, local 

listorical societies and round tables, 

icademic institutions, preservation 

onsulting firms, and private citizens. I 

ncourage you to take advantage of this 

esource by sharing your battlefield 

ireservation trials, tribulations, and 

riumphs with our readership. The 

issemination of ideas and information can 

nly strengthen the American battlefield 

reservation community. 

' hank you for your continued interest in 
attlefield Update. I look forward to 
1 earing from you! 

B . Bryan Mitchell, Chief 

h merican Battlefield Protection Program 

Landmark Mill Burns at 
Thoroughfare Gap 

by Tanya Gossett 

Chapman's Mill, the most significant his- 
toric structure on the Thoroughfare Gap 
battlefield in western Prince William 
County, Virginia, burned on October 22, 
1998. The fire broke out shortly after 4 
p.m. and quickly consumed all floors, flour 
milling machinery, windows, and roofing 
materials. Only the solid stone walls re- 
main. Local fire and police authorities 
suspect arson. 

County officials indicated that on 
numerous, documented occasions, 
teenagers and other trespassers had 
broken into the vacant mill and vandalized 
the property. Within a week of the blaze, 
several architectural historians and a 
structural engineer evaluated the stability 
of the ruins and the feasibility of 
restoration. The experts have advised 

Prince William County that the Riins are 
stable and that the structure can be 

Also known as Beverley's Mill, the 
original three story stone structure was 
built in the 18th century. In 1858 it was 
enlarged to a commanding five-and-a-half 
stories. During the Northern Virginia 
Campaign of 1862, Brig. Gen. James 
Kicketts' Union division seized 
Thoroughfare Gap to prevent 
Confederate Maj. Gen. James 
Longstreet's troops from joining Maj. 
Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackr,on at 
Manassas Junction. The Confederates 
engaged Ricketts on August 28. The mill 
served as a blockhouse for both sides. 
The Federals' early possession of the mill 
deflected several Georgia regiments into 
a point-blank firefight with Union 
infantrymen struggling to hold an 
adjoining, low ridge. Another Georgia 
regiment later seized the building, which 
destabilized the Union position and helped 

See Mill, page 4 

The charred ruins of Chapman's Mill on the Thoroughfare Gap 
battlefield in northern Virginia. ABPP photo. 

Capital Watch 

Washington, DC 

President Clinton signed the 1999 
Omnibus Appropriations Act for the 
Federal government on October 19. The 
Act and the Congress" conference report, 
which provides an explanation of the 
intent of the legislative language as well 
as specific dollar amounts for each 
program, include two significant directives 
that affect battlefield preservation. 

Congress stipulated that "up to $8,000,000 
of funds available in fiscal years 1998 and 
1999 shall be available for grants, not 
covering more than 33 percent of the total 
cost of any acquisition to be made with 
such funds, to States and local 
communities for purposes of acquiring 
lands or interests in lands to preserve and 
protect Civil War battlefield sites 
identified in the July 1993 Report on the 
Nation's Civil War Battlefields prepared 
by the Civil War Sites Advisory 

Commission. Lands or interests in lands 
acquired pursuant to this section shall be 
subject to the requirements of ... the Land 
and Water Conservation Fund Act of 
1965." This stipulation does not 
appropriate any additional funds for this 
purpose. Instead, it is intended to make 
it possible to use a portion of the money 
appropriated from the Land and Water 
Conservation Fund in 1998 and 1999 for 
the specific purpose of assisting states and 
localities in acquiring Civil War battlefield 
land. Department of the Interior officials 
are currently determining how best to 
implement this language. 

The new budget also requires that, "within 
available funds, $250,000 is provided to 
initiate a Revolutionary War Study". In 
1996 Congress enacted legislation caUing 
for a historic preservation study of 
battlefield sites associated with the 

Revolutionary War and the War of 1 8 1 ^ 
to be modeled on the previous simila 
study ofCivil War sites. While the origim 
legislation authorized additional fund 
amounting to $750,000 to conduct th 
study, those funds were never actuall 
appropriated by Congress. The 199 
budget language requires the Nations 
Park Service to begin this study b 
reducing or eliminating other activities i 
order to fund the study. As abovt 
Department officials are currentl 
studying how best to fulfill thes 

Finally, the ABPP carries out its normj 
activities--including its annual grar 
awards--from the general fund 
appropriated to the NPS for a variety c 
historic preservation-related activitie; 
Those funds for 1999 are essentially equi 
to the 1998 level. 

NPS to Restore Ft. Duncan by Doug Stover 

The C&O Canal National Historical Park 
contains a well-preserved and significant 
Civil War-era earthwork known as Ft. 
Duncan, along with a smaller battery in 
the same vicinity. Ft. Duncan served as 
the left anchor of an extensive series of 
fortifications along Maryland Heights, 
known as the Bernard Line, that protected 
Harpers Ferry from attack. The primary 
function of Ft. Duncan was to flank 
Bolivar Heights, which guarded ap- 
proaches to Harpers Ferry from the west. 
It was constructed during the winter of 
1 862- 1 863, following the siege and cap- 
ture of Harpers Ferry in September 1862 
by Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. 
"Stonewall" Jackson. With the excep- 
tion of Lt. Gen. Jubal Early's 
demonstration against Union troops com- 

manded by Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel in July 
1 864, the Maryland Heights fortifications 
were never attacked. 

Ft. Duncan sits on a high knoll known as 
Huckleberry Hill, along a sweeping bend 
of the Potomac River a short distance 
upstream from Harpers Ferry. Access is 
gained from Pleasantville Road, off of 
Harpers Ferry Road. The National Park 
Service acquired more than 300 acres at 
this location in the 1 970s. 

Several management issues exist within 
the Ft. Duncan area. These include sta- 
bilizing the fortifications, protecting 
environmentally sensitive forest habitat, 
interpreting the site, and leasing historic 
structures and agricultural lands. 

The park's 1998 Ft. Duncan Study pro 
vides a framework for addressing th 
cultural resource management issues a 
the site. The plan calls for creating an( 
improving interpretive trails to the site t( 
ensure an informative and safe visito 
experience at the fort. Cultural resource 
management recommendations include 
clearing the earthworks of possibly hann 
ful vegetation and encouraging growth o 
adjacent trees to form a protectivi 
canopy above the fort. 

The park began restoration work on Fl 
Duncan this fall. 

Doug Stover is Chief of Cultural 

Resources, Chesapeake & Ohio 

Canal National Historical Park. 

RattlAfialH I InHato 

I ne bpanisn-American war m Puerto kico by Mark r. Barnes 

If you are interested in visiting an area 
containing some of the most varied and 
historic battlefields in America, look no 
further than the islands of the American 
Caribbean: Puerto Rico and the U.S. 
Virgin Islands. Through the efforts of 
the Southeast Regional Office, National 
Park Service, and the Puerto Rico and 
U.S. Virgin Islands State Historic 
Preservation Offices (SHPOs), several 
areas of conflict in the American 
Caribbean have been documented. 
These include the Salt River Bay Site on 
St. Croix, where the first recorded conflict 
between Europeans and Native 
Americans occurred in 1493; the First 
Line of Defense of San Juan, where the 
British besieged the Spanish city in 1 797; 
and Fort Frederick, scene of an 1848 slave 
revolt against Danish rule. 

Most recently, the NPS and its partners 
have focused on identifying and 
documenting cultural resources related to 
the Puerto Rico Campaign of the Spanish- 
American War. Although less well 
kknown than Teddy Roosevelt's charge up 
San Juan Hill in Cuba, the Puerto Rico 
Campaign was one of the most successful 
military initiatives of the 1 1 3 day war. The 
(Puerto Rico Campaign lasted only 19 

days, but our joint surveys have identified 
six battlefield and skirmish sites, three 
landing beaches, two lighthouses, several 
historic roads and bridges, and the 
American headquarters related to this 
campaign. In short, more extant Spanish- 
American War properties exist in Puerto 
Rico than in any other area of the United 

The effort to study Spanish-American 
War properties began with a National 
Historic Landmark (NHL) nomination for 
the shipwreck of the SS Antonio Lopez. 
The U.S. Navy sank the late- 1 9th-century 
steamship off the north coast of Puerto 
Rico when it attempted to run the 
American naval blockade of San Juan. 
The site was designated an NHL in 1997. 
This summer, at a formal presentation at 
La Fortaleza, the NPS presented Puerto 
Rico Governor Pedro Rossello with a 
NHL bronze plaque. Later, Governor 
Rossello dove to the shipwreck to secure 
the plaque on the ocean floor. Plans call 
for developing an underwater diving tour 
of the shipwreck. 

NPS and Puerto Rico SHPO staff have 
also been conducting field surveys and 
preparing documentation for a National 

Inset) The 2nd Wisconsin marclies 
)ast Gen. Nelson A. Milles' headquar- 
ers in Ponce, Puerto Rico, in 1898. 
Above) Today the building is a U.S. 
Customs house. NPS photos. 

Register nomination of Spanish- American 
War sites on the island. Historians Frank 
Miele and Jose Marrull have visited and 
photographed numerous sites on the south 
side of the island, and the author and 
Puerto Rico SHPO staff have studied a 
Spanish colonial lighthouse near Guanica, 
where the American army first landed on 
July 25, 1898. These efforts have 
produced a Multiple Property National 
Register noinination of sites associated 
with the campaign that the Puerto Rico 
SHPO will submit to the NPS this winter. 

One of the more interesting projects of 
this joint effort has been the creation of a 
computerized, illustrated history of the 
Puerto Rico Cam.paign. The objective 
was to re-create a slide presentation, with 
popular period music, typical of what a 
person in 1 898 might have seen in theaters 
of the time. 

NPS historians studied hundreds of origi- 
nal photographs and documents to 
develop the video sequences and script, 
but we lacked period music. Fortunately, 
Glenn Sage, of Portland, Oregon, kindly 
shared with the NPS his collection of re- 
corded music taken from 100 year old 
wax cylinders for the musical portion of 
the illustrated history. A copy of the com- 
puter program has been provided to the 
Puerto Rico SHPO, and plans call for 
making the electronic history more widely 

In sum, because the NPS has committed 
to a long-range program of direct techni- 
cal assistance to the SHPO offices of the 
American Caribbean, a number of impor- 
tant Spanish-American War sites have 
been documented and honored. The NPS 
and the Puerto Rico SHPO hope the rec- 
ognition of these battlefields will draw 
attention to these nationally significant 
cultural properties and foster a commit- 
ment to their long-term preservation. 

Mark Barnes is Senior Archeologist. National 
Register Programs Division, Southeast 
Regional Office, National Park Service. 


convince Ricketts to abandon the area. 
The next day, Longstreet's men marched 
through the gap and joined Jackson in 
time to participate in the Battle of Second 

The mill remained operational into the 
1940s. In 1970, concerned citizens and 
state and Federal highway officials 
agreed that Interstate 66 would be de- 
signed to avoid the mill. Chapman's Mill 
has been documented by the Historic 
American Buildings Survey (HABS), is 
listed in the National Register of Historic 
Places, and is a Prince William County 

The north half of the Thoroughfare Gap 
battlefield (just above the mill) is pro- 
tected by the Bull Run Mountains Natural 
Area. The Friends of Bull Run, Inc., 
which manages the conservation area, 
has provided limited interpretation along 
several trails on the high ground north of 
the mill, the scene of the most intense 
fighting and the significant Confederate 
flanking maneuver. 

For more infonnation about Chapman's 
Mill or about hiking the battlefield, con- 
tact the Friends of Bull Run at P.O. Box 
210, Broad Run, VA 20137 or (703) 753- 

Now Available from the 

Central Maryland Heritage 


Fire on the Mountain: The 

Battle of South Mountain 

Battlefield Guide 

This full-color driving tour brochure 
interprets the discrete battles that 

raged on South Mountain on 

September 14, 1862, and how they 

affected the course of the Maryland 


For copies contact the CMHL at P.O. 

Box 721, Middletown, MD 21769. 

They can also be reached at (301) 

371-7090 or 

ABPP News 

Healthy Competition 
Expected for '99 Grants 

by Ginger Carter 

The ABPP anticipates an increase in 
battlefield preservation grant applications 
for its 1999 funding round as more 
organizations representing more diverse 
sites enter the competition. Again this 
year the ABPP will consider projects at 
battlefields of all wars fought on 
American soil, from colonial conflicts to 
World War II. 

To be eligible for ABPP grants, project 
sites must be 1 ) listed in the CWSAC 
Report; or 2) listed in the National 
Register of Historic Places; or 3) eligible 
for listing in the National Register 
according to the appropriate State Historic 
Preservation Officer. Please note that 
Civil War sites with a preservation priority 
ranking of I or II (according to the Civil 
War Sites Advisory Commission) will be 
favored over projects at other Civil War 

The ABPP seeks projects that lead 
directly to the long-term preservation o1 
battlefield lands. We strongly encourage 
projects involving multiple partners andy 
or matching funds, although neither is 

Completed applications are due back to 
the ABPP by close of business December 
31, 1998. If you have not received an 
application and would like one, please 
contact us at (202) 343-9583 or download 
the application and guidelines from our 
web site at 

The ABPP will contact successful 
appUcants no later than February 28, 1 999. 
Grant agreements take at least three 
months to process. Therefore, projects 
should not be scheduled to begin earlier 
than June 1, 1999. 

If you are considering applying for ABPP 
grants but are unsure if your proposed 
project meets the ABPP's guidelines, 
please contact Ginger Carter, Grants 
Manager, at (202) 343-1210. 

Examples of Eligible Projects 

Ineligible Projects 

Site Identification and Documentation 

■ Acquisition of properties or land in fee 

■ Historical research 

or interest 

■ National Register nominations 

■ Payment of rent on properties or land 

■ Archeological and cultural resource 

■ Fund raising 


■ Lobbying 

■ Academic scholarships 

Planning and Consensus Building 

■ Battle reenactments 

■ Preservation plans 

■ New construction or reconstruction of 

■ Preservation advocacy projects 

historical resources 

■ Permanent staff positions 

Education and Interpretation* 

■ Ongoing object or material culture 

■ Public workshops 


■ Developing signs and brochures 

■ Capital constiTJCtion or unprovemenls 

■ Any project limited to land or resources 

*If your organization plans to apply for an 

owned by the National Park Service 

education or interpretation project, be es- 

pecially careful to clearly describe how the 

project will lead to the preservation of land. 

Rattlpfipiri Undate 

rjoies on unanesion by Hampton rucker 

The staff of the American Battlefield Protection Program would 
like to thank its partners, the Association for the Preservation 
of Civil War Sites (APCWS), The Civil War Trust (CWT), 
Fort Sumter National Monument, and the National Conference 
of State Historic Preservation Officers, as well as all the 
enthusiastic battlefield preservationists who attended the Fourth 
National Conference on Battlefield Preservation: Defining 
Battlefields — Why, How, and What Then...? Each sponsor 
and participant was instrumental in making the conference a 
great success. Held in Charleston, South Carolina, from 
September 16-19, the conference attracted a record 230 
participants from every comer of the United States. Attendees 
represented battle sites associated with the Revolutionary War, 
the War of 1 8 1 2, the Civil War, Indian wars, and World War II. 

APCWS launched the conference with a one-day workshop 
on land acquisition strategies and techniques. APCWS staff 
and six guest speakers presented a thorough overview of the 
entire acquisition process, including successful legal strategies, 
fund raising techniques, real estate tips, and the integral role of 
local friends groups. Special thanks to APCWS' Jeff Driscoll 
and Bob Edmonston for coordinating a great workshop. 

isiana, mciuamg oanery i^rmgie, ^orl jonnson, ana tni 
Secessonville battlefield. An intrepid group of 25 Revolutionai; 
War enthusiasts struck out for the fort at Old Dorchester an( 
the Quinby Plantation battlefield. Near Moncks Comer, th^ 
group had an especially unique tour of a well-preserved BritisI 
earthen fort, complete with moat and makeshift drawbridge 
Many thanks to the tour coordinators and guides, Dan Bell 
Oliver Buckles, Skipper Keith, Dana MacBean, and Davi( 

Participants will receive a letter in the next several weeks ask 
ing them to elaborate on opinions they expressed on thei 
conference evaluation forms. We are especially interested ii 
your ideas for improving session content and organization, iden 
tifying future conference themes and locations, institutini 
smaller, technical workshops, and nominating speakers for thi 
next National Conference in 2000. 

The ABPP was pleased to see a wide variety of sites repre 
sented at this year's conference. We look forward to continuin; 
our work within the Ci^il War community and to establishin: 
new relationships among organizations striving to protect battle 
field sites representing all wars on American soil. 

Conference highlights included an entertaining and provoca- 
tive keynote address by Tony Horwitz, author of 
Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished 
Civil War. Horwitz discussed the enduring legacy of the Civil 
War in the late-20th-century American South, and the impor- 
tance of preserving battlefields as tangible reminders of our 
unique history as citizens of a country becoming increasingly 
homogenized by the spread of commercial development. 

On September 18, The Civil War Tmst presented a morning 
seminar entitled TEA-21: How You Can Use Transportation 
Enhancement Funds for Battlefield Preservation. TEA-2 1 
(Transportafion Equity Act for the 21"' Century) enhancement 
funds comprise transportafion investments that protect the 
environment, preserve cultural and historic resources, and 
provide significant community benefits. Since 1992, more than 
$45 million in enhancement funds have been used to protect 
threatened battlefields and related resources. The workshop 
facilitators explained the TEA-21 guidelines and application 
process and helped participants define eligible battlefield 
projects. The CWT's Elliot Graber, Julie Fix, Carole Mahoney, 
and Melissa Meisner, and consultant Susan Braselton, organized 
this important session. 

The conference concluded with a sunset cruise on Charleston 
Harbor to Fort Sumter, where historian Rick Hatcher gave a 
twilight oration of the fort's military history. Superintendent 
John Tucker then invited his 200 guests to wander the fort at 
night, a rare treat. The next day, participants had a choice of 
two battlefield tours. Forty set out for Civil War sites on James 

CWT Bestows Battlefield Awards 

(from Civil War Landscape, Fall 1998, with permission) 

During the Charleston conference. The Civil War Trust presented 
awards to three grassroots organizations for their "outstanding 
accomplishments" in battlefield preservation, community leader- 
ship, and visitor services. 

The Central Viiginia Battlefields Trust (CVBT) received the CWT's 
1998 Preservation Award for "saving vital Civil War battlefield 
lands from development." Only two years old, the CVBT emerged 
during the successful acquisition of Willis Hill at Fredericksburg, 
and has saved more than 100 acres of land at Chancellorsville, 
including "McLaws Wedge" and part of Jackson's Flank Attack. 

The CWT bestowed upon the Mill Springs Battlefield Association 
(MSB A) its 1998 Community Leadership Award for "mobilizing 
its local community to recognize and support the preservation of 
Civil War battlefields." Since 1992, the MSB A has rallied local 
citizens and public officials to protect the battlefield and has 
leveraged that support into Federal, state, and private funds for 
land acquisition and preservation projects at Mill Springs. 

The Siege and Battle of Corinth Coinmission accepted the CWT's 
1998 Interpretation and Visitor Services Award. Using ISTEA 
funding, the Commission created more than 20 miles of trails and i 
self-directed tours of the Corinth battlefield and earthworks, de- 
veloped its own interpretive film, and opened a visitors center 

For more information about the CWT's Preservation Award pro- 
gram, call 800-CW-TRUST 


Battlefield Preservation Profile 


I i story 

n July 11, 1861, Union troops under the command of Maj. Gen. 
eorge B. McClellan routed the Confederates holding the pass over 
ich Mountain near Beverly, Virginia (now West Virginia). This battle 
as one of the earliest engagements of the Civil War. Both the 
onfederacy and the Union hoped to gain control of northwestern 
irginia where many residents opposed secession from the Union. 
[lis battle gave the Union control over much of the region and allowed 
e counties in the area to form the government that later established 
e state of West Virginia. McClellan's victory greatly enhanced his 
ilitary reputation. In less than two weeks, the shocking defeat of 
e Union anny at First Manassas, Virginia, on July 21 , 1 86 1 , prompted 
esident Lincoln to appoint McClellan as commander of the Army of 
e Potomac, replacing Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell. 

'reservation Activity 

1 1 98 1 , a local group placed a historical marker commemorating the 
ittle on the crest of Rich Mountain. Additional efforts to protect 
e site have increased greatly since 1990, the same year that the 
jcretary of the Interior established the American Battlefield 
rotection Program ( ABPP) and Congress and the Secretary appointed 
e Civil War Sites Advisory Commission to study and rank the 
ition's Civil War battlefields. 

help in protecting the site. This initiated a relationship between the 
two organizations that resulted in the Forest Service dedicating a 
limited amount of staff-time and guidance for battlefield preservation 
efforts. By the end of the year, the Forest Service, the RMBF, and the 
Randolph County Development Authority had developed a concep- 
tual plan for the battlefield. 

In 1994 and 1995, 346 acres were acquired— in part with ISTEA 
funds-through a partnership among the RMBF. the Conservation 
Fund, the State of West Virginia, and the Benedum Foundation. The 
RMBF then submitted a National Historic Landmark nomination to 
the National Park Service (the nomination remains under 
consideration). The RMBF also received two ABPP grants that funded 
the development of local support for the Staunton-Parkersburg 
Turnpike Corridor Coalition, a group concerned with the preservation 
of historic resources along the turnpike, including battlefields 
associated with the 1861 Westeni Virginia Campaign. The Civil War 
Trust (CWT) added the site to its Civil War Discovery Trail in 1995. 

During 1996. several acquisitions increased the amount of land pro- 
tected at the battlefield. The CWT. the Conservation Fund, and the 
RMBF acquired 1 4 acres. Due to the threat of strip mining at the site, 
the CWT allocated Civil War Commemorative Coin funds to acquire 
the mineral rights to 57.5 acres. They also funded the appraisal of a 
12-acre tract being considered for future acquisition. 

1 1991, local residents established the Rich Mountain Battlefield 
3undation (RMBF) and protected 14.32 acres at Camp Gamett. The 
;xt yeai", 2 1 5 acres of the site were listed in the National Register of 
istoric Places, and the RMBF secured an Intermodal Surface 
ransportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) grant to fund the acquisition 
'battlefield land. The Association for the Preservation of Civil War 
ites ( APCWS) acquired 40 acres in 1992. 

he Civil War Sites Advisory Commission completed its report in 
?93; the report classified Rich Mountain as one of the 50 most threat- 
led Civil War battlefields in the country. Later that year, the RMBF 
jproached a local unit of the USDA Forest Service and asked for 

His victory at Rich 
Mountain helped 
launch Maj. Gen. 
George B. 
McClellan to 
command of the 
Army of the 
Potomac in 
August 1861. 
National Archives. 

That same year, the RMBF applied for and received a third ABPP 
grant to continue developing plans for the preservation and inteipre- 
tation of the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike, and to develop 
educational resources for the Rich Mountain battlefield. The West 
Virginia Division of Culture and History began an archeological sur- 
vey of the battlefield. 

In 1997. the RMBF made significant steps toward reaching out to the 
local community. It purchased the Bushrod Crawford Building in 
Beverly and established a new visitor center in the building, which 
had served as McClellan's headquarters after the battle. The RMBF 
also received a fourth ABPP grant to fund an educational campaign 
focusing on interpretation and stabilization of resources, expanding 
existing interpretation, developing a multi-media computer presenta- 
tion, and systematically monitoring endangered battlefield resources. 

Today 471 .8 acres of this 
1,626-acre* battlefield are protected. 

*Acreage represents the study area of the battlefield as defined in a survey 
completed during the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission Study. 

Site Contact 

For more information about this site contact the Rich Mountain 
Battlefield Foundation. Inc.. PO. Box 227. Beverly. WV. 26253, 
(304) 637-RICH. 

Battlefield Update 

Recommended Reading 

Allatoona Battlefield Master 
Preservation Plan 

Prepared by Robert and Company, 
Atlanta, and William R. Scaife for the 
Etowah Valley Historical Society and the 
ABPP. September 1998. 64 pages, with 
color photographs and appendices. 
Copies available from EVHS, P.O. Box 
1886, Cartersville, GA 30120. 

The plan includes a battlefield site inven- 
tory of historic, natural, and scenic 
features, land use, and existing infrastruc- 
ture. It notes significant properties within 
the battlefield and discusses land preser- 
vation strategies that can be implemented 
by the local government and the private 
sector. The document also contains a 
master site plan with recommendations 
for park development and interpretation, 
and a tourism impact and benefit study 
that identifies potential economic impacts 
in the region. 

Civil War Ordnance of Mirror 
Lake, Calais, Washington 
County, Vermont 

Prepared by the Lake Champlain 
Maritime Museum, Ferrisburgh, 
Vermont, for the ABPP, the Lake 
Champlain Basin Project, the National 
Trust for Historic Preserx'ation, the U.S. 
Naval Historical Center, and the Vermont 
Division for Historic Preservation. 
September 1998. 189 pages, black and 
white illustrations, and appendices. 
Copies available from the VDHP, 135 
State Street, Drawer 33, Montpelier, VT 

This report recounts the remarkable re- 
covery, disarmament, curation, and 
interpretation of 65 intact Civil War 
spherical case shot, which had been 
dumped in shallow water along the steep 
west bank of Mirror Lake in north-cen- 
tral Vermont after the war. The Lake 
Champlain Maritime Museum's examina- 
tion of the shot provides an excellent 
analysis of the component parts— includ- 

ing the cast iron sphere, wooden sabot, 
pewter Bormann fuse, rubber gasket, cast 
iron plug, and gunpowder--of this 
antipersonnel device. The report also in- 
cludes a thorough history of the design 
and manufacture of spherical case shot. 

Reconnaissance Survey of 
Indian-U.S. Army Battlefields of 
the Northern Plains 

Prepared by Jerome A. Greene, Inter- 
mountain Support Office, NPS, Denver, 
for the ABPP. September 1998. 193 
pages with black and white illustrations. 
Copies available from the ABPP. 

This report contains survey data gathered 
at 23 battle and skirmish sites where the 
U.S. Army and various Indian tribes 
clashed on the Northern Plains of 
Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, and 
Nebraska. The selected sites represent 
several periods of conflict, ranging from 
the 1850s through the 1880s. 

The report begins with a concise, well- 
researched history of warfare on the 
Northern Plains. The opening chapters 
place the surveyed sites in historical con- 
text of major events such as the 
Fetterman Massacre, the Fort Laramie 
Treaty of 1868, and the Battle of Little 
Bighorn, allowing the reader to discern 
the role each surveyed site played in U.S.- 
Indian relations. 

Through historical research, site visits, and 
structured methodology, Greene provides 
consistent base data for the 23 sites, 17 
of which were undocumented previously. 
Historical information includes battle date, 
principal leaders, units and tribes involved, 
number of combatants, estimated casu- 
alties, event summary, and statement of 
significance. On-site notes record cur- 
rent land use and zoning, threats to the 
battlefield, burial sites, monumentation, 
viewsheds, contributing natural and cul- 
tural resources, and interpretive potential. 


Published by the National Park Service 

Robert Stanton 

Katherine H. Stevenson 
Associate Director, 
Cultural Resources 

Ronald M. Greenberg 

Assistant Associate Director, 

Cultural Resources 

de Teel Patterson Tiller 
Chief, Heritage Preservation Services 

H. Bryan Mitchell 

Chief. American Battlefield 

Protection Program 

Tanya M. Gossett 

Kathleen J. Madigan 
Design Services 

Jerry Buckbinder 
Production Manager 

Battlefield Update is published quarterly 

and is available free of charge. Please send 

articles, news items, and correspondence 

to the address below or electronically to 

American Battlefield Protection Program 
Heritage Preservation Services 

National Park Service 

1849 C Street. NW(NC330) 

Washington, DC 20240 

PHONE (202) 343-3941 

FAX (202) 343-3921 

For more information about the 

American Battlefield Protection Program, 

visit us on-line at 

Regulations ofthe U.S. Departmetu oflhe Interior strictly 
prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental 
Federally Assisted Programs on the basis of race, color, 
national origin, age. or disability. Any person who 
believes he or she has been discriminated against in any 
program operated by a recipient of Federal assistance 
should write to: Director. Equal Opportunity Program, 
U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service, 
1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240. 

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